Japan 50 Week 4 Notes
Japan 50 Week 4 Notes JAPAN 50
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Isabel Yin on Saturday April 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to JAPAN 50 at University of California - Los Angeles taught by Dr. Caleb Carter in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views.
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Date Created: 04/23/16
Medieval Japan (2) Nichiren 1222 - 1282 Tendai Monk sees Lotus Sutra as the most important scripture ● Influenced by mappo thought - idea that there’s a gradual decline in the world ● Practice: exclusive recitation of the title of Lotus Sutra - compare with Pure Land movements ● Promoted the divine nature of Japan ● People are degenerated and cannot upgrade due to a gradual decline, thus we will focus on chanting Lotus Sutra ● Nichiren Mandala - local gods (kami) integrate into Mandala - elevation from diamond mandala Muromachi Period ● Area of Kyoto for the new Bakufu ● Ashikaga Shogunate (1336 - 1573) ● Gradual decentralization land rights of absentee landlords greatly reduced ● Emergence of Daimyo - Onin War 1467 - 1477: Fall of Ashikaga Shogunate 14th century ● Weakened Kamakura Shogunate (by mongols, money expenditure, economy going down) ● Kenmu restoration (1333- 1336) - Emperor Go-Daigo - wants to recover power in the court, Ashikaga at first aligned with him but later Ashikaga exiled him to the southern courts ● Northern and Southern courts (1336 - 1392) ○ Kyoto - northern courts ○ Yoshino - mountains of Southern courts - Tenmu also fled down the court with him Noteworthy Ashikaga Shoguns 1. Ashikaga Takauji 1305 - 1358 R. 1338 - 1358 moves Bakufu to Kyoto 2. Ashikaga Yoshimitsu unifies courts in 1392 3. Ashikaga Yoshimasa decline of bakufu Ashikaga power ● Unification of court and Bakufu in Kyoto consolidate power ● Rice cultivation tripled, epidemics decline ● Increase in commercial trade with the Ming dynasty, Zen monks become major benefactors but… Kamakura admin of public lands lost ● Rise of provincial warlords (Shugo (both become Daimyo with own military and Jito - land stewards and collect taxes to Kamakura later they take a part of own taxes) now semi-autonomously own interest ● Full-scale war breaks out in 1367 What is the status of women? ● Early history (up through 10th century) ○ Greater economic autonomy ○ Female sovereigns ○ Female shamans stationed at different shrines to give them a powerful force ○ Married couples will live independently from paretns ○ Warrior culture to reside with warrior family and serving the culture ● 11th - 16th c: gradual decline ○ Confucian values 11-12th century ○ Buddhist influences - karma with stories of women and single man managed households ○ Motion of impurity and demonization of women ○ Patriarchal households via warrior culture Chan/Son/Zen Buddhism “Zen” means “still the mind” Practices: Emphasis on meditation Funerals and ancestral worship Concept that all living beings have buddha nature, reflect a nature, many lives ago we were already pure-mined but the dust of the world hide it away Spread of Zen ● 8th - 9th century emerged in China ● 10th - 13th century dominated China ● Spreads to Korean Peninsula ● Five major chinese lineages develop ● 12th - 13th century two lineages brought to Japan (Rinzai and Sofo) ● Focus on how meditation should be practiced Rinzai Zen ● Meditation through Koan practice - breakdown mental practice of logic to resolve problem ● Urban development ○ Supported by Kamakura government samurai class. Kyoto court and nobility ○ Nominal founder Eisai 1141 - 1215 ■ Based in Kyoto ■ Accommodated Tendai, Shingon, and Pure Land practices (typical of Japanese buddhist schools) Soto Zen Emphasis on silent meditation Rural: developed in the mountains and countryside, monks ordained in soto traditions, they will be more of a follower-based Nominal founder: Dogen 1200 - 1253 established Eiheiji monastery Zen Politics and Culture Zen is meant to comprise on all activities of the day such as ordinary teeth brushing Zen and continental interaction ● Main avenue for trade and diplomatic relations with Chinese courts ● Embassies to china 1325, 1339, 1397 ○ Note: chinese dynasties Ashikaga Yoshimitsu ● 3rd ashikaga shogun 1358 - 1408 R 1368 - 1394) ● Kitayama estate in hills north of Kyoto ○ Golden Pavilion (kinkakuji) 1397 ○ Bring together gardens and zen-like qualities ○ At the height of his power can train his estates and leave operations to his son and retire there Zen-influenced Painting and Architecture Eighth ashikaga shogun 1449 - 1473 Conflict to succeed him destroyed shogunate - initially unable to produce a son lineage, later did he have a son and conflict between his brother and son - onin war Patron of tea ceremony (sado), no theater, ink painting Linked verse renga, collaborative composition - traditional japanese poem waka is split into two halves (upper and lower) often in hundred verse sequences Zen poets who lived leisurely lifestyle since they’re patronized by courts, activities such as painting No theatre ● Origins are obscure ● Elements - main actor (shite) ● Secondary actor (waki) ● Chorus ● Musicians ● Zeami motokiyo 1363 - 1443 ● Types of plays ○ Genzi-no ○ mugen-no Warring states japan Military developments ● Warlords (daimyo) power completely independent, issued laws in their own lands, formed regional alliances ● Militarized buddhist sects ○ Ikko - sect - pure land sect ○ Lotus sec - followers of nichiren ○ Enryakuji - tendai ● Introduction of firearms - use of foot soldiers ● Development of castle building Socio-economic developments ● Shoen system has disappeared ● No effective central authority ● Regional communes and alliances ● Gekokujo (those below overthrow those above) ● Increased urbanization: emergence of more villages and towns ● Key dates ○ 1467 - 1477 onin war ○ 1543 portuguese reach tanegashima ○ 1573 last ashikaga shogun driven out of kyoto ○ 1592 invasion of choson (second invasion in 1597 aka the imjin war ○ 1600 battle of sekigahara ○ 1603 establishment of tokugawa shogunate
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