Cognitive Psych Lecture Notes Feb. 23 & 25
Cognitive Psych Lecture Notes Feb. 23 & 25 PSY 0422
Popular in Cognitive Psychology
Popular in Psychlogy
This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lindsay Notetaker on Friday February 27, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 0422 at University of Pittsburgh taught by in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 53 views. For similar materials see Cognitive Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Pittsburgh.
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Date Created: 02/27/15
Knowledge Effects Schema active organization of past reactions or past experiences Lists what parts to expect 0 Could make a prediction of what s to happen if you re only presented with the rst few lines of the schema story 0 Mind generates predictions based on your past experiences Lists default values if didn t read about what would you expect Schemas in uence what we can comprehend You have to know what schema to use for it to in uence your comprehension the schema has to be activated General knowledge structure used for understanding One s knowledge about the world General encodes information about a particular type of situation Structured doesn t just consist of some set of facts but also includes how these facts are related Structure allows a schema to be used for inferring additional information Comprehension structure of the schema includes how the knowledge is related in this type of situation but doesn t include information about any exact situation Includes slots for particular information filling in slots of information Allow us to treat knowledge about events as connected rather than independent 0 Provides information about how facts t together and supports inferences about things not stated directly Generate expectations about what s likely to be true Script knowledge structure containing the sequence of events that usually occurs in a particular stereotyped situation common schema for routine events Key words and events that occur in a context help trigger appropriate schema Helpful with retrieving memory of what we have stored Problems with Schemas It s not clear how to implement the desired properties of schemas It s straightforward to have slots with default values but hard to implement the idea that the values in some slots constrain the acceptable values in other slots Schemas may create situations in which we misremember something that came from our prior knowledge as being a part of the event itself Schemas and Memory Our prior knowledge of how what typically happens schemas shapes 0 Our comprehension of events 0 How we encode events 0 How we retrieve information later Misinformation Effect Choosing a misleading suggestion Misleading information can be suggested after an event occurs that affects what answers a person gives to later questions Evidence eyewitness testimonies Presenting misleading postevent information can affect people s responses and increase the probability that they will respond with the misleading suggestion Can be used to examine deceptive advertising and whether believing that you drank alcohol in uences your memory and confidence in your memory Explanations o Overwriting assume misleading information alters original trace with the misleading information 0 Source confusion misleading information may not impair original memory but instead provide some competing information that can be retrieved and used at times as if it were the original memory because the source of the memory is not clear 0 Misinformation acceptance people may use misleading information because they don t know better and assume the misleading information is true Flashbulb Memories Memories that involve a distinct biological mechanism that we ve developed through evolution so that highly consequential surprising events are very well remembered because such events may be crucial for survival Have exceptional amount of detail Most people can remember events from many years ago in great detail but most likely may not be very accurate Events that have a large effect on our lives Metamemory People s ability to know how likely they are to be able to remember something or how effective some strategy may be We don t have direct knowledge of how well we know something we make an inference based on some aspect of our remembering We may think we know something when really it s just the primacy effect in action or just fast recall Types of Long Term Memory Procedural Declarative 0 Semantic o Episodic Autobiographical Explicit amp Implicit Declarative Memory Knowing that Things that you can declare Examples The name of the class is cognitive psychology My brother called last night The Brook Trout is Pennsylvania s state sh Simple facts can be learned relatively quickly Relational relates parts parts and context in a network of associations Flexible can be applied to many different situations ex Darwin s theory can be used to explain many different phenomena in the world Episodic memory everyday situations memory for speci c events or episodes in our life Semantic memory our ability to store and retrieve facts such as categories and types of events 0 Content permits us to make inferences about properties of concepts information in it isn t tied directly to information about the source of knowledge Procedural memory Knowing how Procedures of how to do things Examples how to drive a car how to speak English how to play a sport Learned relatively slowly requires skill amp practice Not exible used in speci c ways Dif cult to express let me show you Explicit Memory memory of an event from a certain time and place Implicit Memory memory of which some previous experience affects performance without being associated with any direct recollection of the experience Differ in whether there s a direct recollection or conscious experience associated with the memory Warmups are helpful for improving memory because of levels of processing spaced practice and it activates prior knowledge schemas helping with encoding and retrieval Amnesia severe memory impairment Retrograde have trouble remembering information before brain damage 0 At some point in life there s an accident memories before accident are lost but can encode new memories after the accident normally Anterograde have trouble forming new memories after brain damage 0 Our old memories are intact before the accident but ro after the accident we can t encode new memories Infantile childhood inability of adults to retrieve episodic memories before the age of 241 years as well as the period 20 before age 10 of which adults retain fewer memories than might 2 otherwise be expected given the passage of time Can be caused by alcoholism car accidents etc 139 CO rrect U1 G Peru I l I I 19167 I930 1910 1950 I960 1970 15430 1940 1950 1960 19 1930 FIGURE 62 Retrograde amnesia for recall orinlormalion from P Zfs autobiography Scum Butters 81 Cermuk 1986 Retrograde Amnesia Can form new memories but lose memories from before brain damage Characterization 0 Most likely to recover oldest memories 0 Most likely to lose ones nearer trauma 0 Does not affect procedural memory or social skills Temporal gradient memory loss is gradual forgetting curve older memories are better preserved than newer ones across a variety of causes of the amnesia and measures of memory de cits Why might they show this 0 Forgetting o Encoding Autobiographical Anterograde Amnesia Can remember memories from before brain damage but can t form new declarative memories Characterization famous case subject HM performance on mirror drawing 0 Shortterm memory is ne 0 Doesn t affect procedural memory can even learn some new skills 0 Couldn t learn new people Disassociation between explicit and implicit memory Sparing of some implicit Equate study and test See difference in explicit cued recall vs implicit word stem completion 0 Shown mar and fill in with word on list or first word that comes to mind Explicitly knowing and getting the cue vs people having no conscious awareness Suggest anterograde amnesia people are able to implicitly learn some new declarative information Amnesia Clip Accident then medical complications seizures coma Good retention of old memories Poor learning of new though some good at learning through doing Amnesia and Memory Rich source of data constraints Supports procedural declarative distinction Suggest distinction between processes that help to form a memory and the representations formed Application Memory and Acting Verbatim Memory for Actors Memory near perfect for many even 20 months later Some examined 28 years later memory obviously worse but still pretty good for recognition of detailed verbatim parts Issues how do actors learn their lines How do instructions on how to learn their lines in uence gist vs verbatim memory Claims of actors read script many times don t try to remember wording until after blocking work on actions and intentions words come as byproduct Usual ndings people remember gist meaning gist instructions help more than rote Experiment Noice 1993 Actors and undergrads Learn script for 20 minutes Test given other character s lines recall surprise test 1 week later Results Noice 1993 Gist is better than rotememorization No delay 37 vs 10 Delay 23 vs 6 What does this mean People are trying to remember the underlying meaning not just strictly the words Memory Summary General characterization Processes and structure Processes encoding storage retrieval Structure models for memory traditional Duration and capacity of STM Chunking Working memory Phonological loop Visuospatial sketchpad Central executive LTM encoding and retrieval Encoding Processes Levels of processing intention to learn Elaboration builds a coherent representation selfreference Encodingretrieval interactions Processing View levels revisited picture superiority effect Context effects environment related phenomena state dependent learning mood Effects of prior knowledge Schemas Types of memory declarative and procedural Amnesia retrograde anterograde Application acting and memory meaning is important for verbatim memory
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