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EVE12 week 4 notes

by: Elizabeth P.

EVE12 week 4 notes EVE12

Elizabeth P.
GPA 3.5

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lecture notes from week 4
Life in the Sea
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Elizabeth P. on Saturday April 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to EVE12 at University of California - Davis taught by in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Life in the Sea in Biology at University of California - Davis.


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Date Created: 04/23/16
Live Organisms Lecture Natural History- Sonoma Coast Holdfasts of kelp found on beach, missing frawns but has stipe and holdfast Feather boa kelp- up to 20ft long James Cook- paid historians to come out with him on his expeditions, brought artists to document biodiversity Charles Darwin- famous trip to Galapagos, art and observations 4/21 Goals 1. outline distinguishing characteristics of major marine invertebrate phyla 2. present interesting facts about the diverse way in which marine invertebrates live in the sea 3. describe feeding modes and positions in trophic webs 1. the majority 97% of animals on earth are invertebrates and most live in the sea 2. invertebrates are multi-cellular without backbones 3. many have complex life histories with different morphologies in different habitats 4. eve12 will consider 9 of 18 phyla of marine animals 5. Distinguishing characteristics a. Type of larvae and how they develop (many examples of complex life histories) b. Body symmetry, radial and bilateral c. Body cavity and covering d. Organization of cells within body e. Segmentation 6. Phyla a. Porifera (sponges) b. Cnidaria (hydroids, jelly animals, sea anemones, hard and soft corals) c. Mollusca (molluscs) i. Single shell gastropods (gastropoda) ii. Two shells hinged together (bivalaves, Bivalva) iii. No shell or reduced shell (cephalopods, octopus, cuttle fish, squid, Cephalapoda) d. Annelida (segmented worms) i. Polychaetes- segmented worms with parapodia, class Polychaeta 7. Sponges a. Sessile and benthic b. Pores called ostioles or ostia for suspensions feeding, specifically filter feeding c. Suspension feeding: feeding on particles suspended in the water column d. Filter feeding: suspension feeding by actively filtering plankton from water e. Spicules provide structure f. Reproduction: review Sex in the sea, larva- sphere of flagellated cells g. Common on coral reefs and rocky habitats in temperate environments, 15,00 species h. Provide habitat for brittle stars, crabs, small fish i. Have unique chemicals that provide defense against predators j. Sponges are a favorite food of hawksbill turtles k. Elephant ear sponge: can see the bands of pores, goby fish live on them 8. Anemones, Sea Jellies, Corals, Cnidaria a. Soft body, radial symmetry, tentacles for feeding and nematocysts (stinging cells for killing and defense) b. Carnivorous (some have symbioses with algae) c. Polyp (mouth up) or medusa (mouth down) body form planula larva d. Sea jellies: largest medusa body form, potent toxins delivered by stinging cells e. Sea anemones: benthic polyp, can pack powerful stings, toxins that destroy blood cells, common pacific intertidal anemone- green surf anemone Anthopleura xanthogrammica f. Hard and soft corals: live in tropical and subarctic seas, form extensive reefs only in the tropics i. Hard corals are colonial cndarians that surround each polyp with a calcified skeleton ii. Bamboo corals grow in temperate deep water 1. Live for centuries 2. Annual growth bands in the their calcium carbonate skeletons, climate recorders 3. provide habitat structure 4. destroyed by fish trawlers and by oil and gas exploitation 5. soft corals do not build a calcium carbonate skeleton, have eigh tentacles surrounding each polyp mouth 9. molluscs a. calcified shell, muscular foot, radula (tongue like organ), veliger larva i. veliger is planktonic and has two ciliated lobes ii. represent one stage in their complex life history b. gastropods i. single shell, Gastropoda ii. herbivores,, predators or detritivores iii. commonly known as marine snails iv. muscular foot v. opening to the shell is closed by the operculum vi. radula- tooth shape, tongue like structure, tooth shape adapted to food source, pointy for rasping tough seaweeds, blunt teeth mineralized with iron to scrape benthic algae off rocks vii. snipe’s bill murex uses muscular foot for locomotion c. herbivorous i. abalone ii. periwinkles (littorine snails) scrape algae from intertidal rocks (inhabit pickleweed salt marshes) iii. limpets resemble flat volcanoes d. cone snails: the radula of a cone shell is modified to inject conotoxin into their prey, is a potent neurotoxin, prey on other mollusks, fish and worms i. live in the warm waters of the Pacific e. sea slug nudibranchs that lose their shells during evolution, gills exposed i. pierces seaweed cell and harvests the chloroplasts continue to photozynthesize supplying sugars to nudibranch, also picks up Caulepera’s toxins ii. flame/firey nudibranch, sensory antenna, external gills, muscular foot, mantle (fleshy fringe) iii. use flow to find mates f. bivalves (clams, muscles, oysters, scallops) i. 2 hinged shells, siphons to feed ii. muscles and oysters are suspension feeders iii. deposit feeders use their siphons to feed on detritus g. cephalopods (octopus, squid, cuttlefish) i. reduced or no shell ii. tentacles to feed iii. squid/cuttlefish have fewer than eight tentacles and a vestige of an internal shell iv. octopi have 8 arms, no shell and inject poison into prey v. blue ringed octopus show rings when disturbed, can be deadly vi. most cephalopods change skin color rapidly for camouflage vii. squid fisheries are high value, use lights to attract squid at night h. giant, jumbo or Humboldt squid i. 7 feet long, 15-60 pounds, swim up to 25mph, live 3- 4 years, found at 650-3000 feet, sperm whales eat giant squid and show evidence that the squid fight back ii. showing up on our coast, recent phenomenon


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