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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jessica Olason on Friday February 27, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIO102 at Washington State University taught by Professor Storfer in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 84 views. For similar materials see Biology in Science at Washington State University.
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Date Created: 02/27/15
22315 Cell division and Cancer Creature of the day Grumpy frog 0 African rain frog Blob sh 0 Deep sea sh of Australia Angler sh 0 Deep sea sh with modi ed n that is a lure bio luminescent to see 0 Star nosed mole O E Canada and NE America good swimmer sensitive tentacles The cell cycle 0 0 Cell division mitosis Cancer abnormal cell division 0 Cell division meiosis 0 Sex cell gamete formation Cancer is caused by abnormal cell division Cell division is part of a normal cellular process Cell cycle normal Most of the time cells are in interphase Steps of interphase are 0 O O 61 cell growth amp normal metabolism S DNA replication amp chromosome duplication 62 growth amp preparation for mitosis S phase initiates division in chromosomes 0 S phase before mitosis DNA replicates amp into 2 sister chromatids connected by a centromere Chromosomes O O O 0 DNA is tightly wound in chromosomes contained in cell nucleus Each species has different numbers and shapes of chromosomes quotka ryotypequot Most animals are diploid meaning that they carry 2 copies of chromosomes Pars of chromosomes are called homologous 12 meters of DNA packed in cell size of 5 micrometers O 0 Each species has different numbers amp shapes of chromosomesgt quotka ryotypequot Most animals are diploid meaning that they carry 2 copies of chromosomes 0 Pairs of chromosomes 1 from mom and 1 from dad are called homologous 0 Cells in human body except eggs amp sperm contain 46 chromosomes each During S phase chromosomes double making 4 copies Then G phase Then 4 stages of mitosis 1 Prophase 2 Metaphase 3 Anaphase 4 Telophase Prophase First stage of mitosis Chromatin condenses amp becomes visible in nucleus Centrosomes move to opposite poles of cell Microtubules begin to grow out from centrosomes Metaphase middle Chromosomes attach to spindle bers at centromeres Chromosomes line up in middle of cell Anaphase Daughter chromosomes separate Pulled by spindle bers to opposite sides of cell Telophase Spindle bers dissolve New nuclei form Ring of actin laments forms around nuclei Cytokinesis breaks 2 daughter cells apart 0 Technically not a part of mitosis Cancen Now that we know normal cell division process how does cancer occur 1 single cell loses control of mitosis 2 divides uncontrollably producing daughter cells with same problems a if contained at this stage tumor called benign 3 if these cancerous cells spread to other parts of body tumor is malignant Why don t we see cells dividing out of control all the time Cell division is heavily regulated Genes that produce proteins involved in cell division called protooncogenes Tumor suppressor genes prevent cells from dividing For cell to divide protooncogenes must be turned on and tumor suppressor genes off Certain types of DNA damage cause cell to lose control of mitosis How a cell turns cancerous 1 Protooncogenes become oncogenes which cause excessive cell division 0 works with single mutation 2 Damage to tumor suppressor genes 0 both copies have to be damaged Cancer related to lifestyle 0 Study 44000 pairs of twins 0 most important contributor to cancer risk was environment including lifestyle and behavior Risk factors see Table 115 Behavioral changes can reduce risk of many types of cancer Cigarette smoking leading cause of cancer mortality in US 0 Tobacco smoke has 40 known carcinogens People who quit smoking before age 50 reduce risk of dying by 50 0 Skin cancer 0 By far most common 0 1 million new cases per year in US 0 Risk goes up dramatically each time sunburned o WEAR SUNSCREEN Queensland Australia 0 Ozone layer thin protects against UV B 0 13 people get skin cancer Types Carcinoma generally not malignant but should be removed Melanoma bad news Meiosis division of gametes Produces gametes eggs and sperm 0 Key just like mitosis but 2 cellular divisions before second division DNA does NOT replicate Major differences from mitosis 0 ends up in 1 copy of chromosomes haploid in eggs and sperm versus 2 copies diploid from mitosis in rest of somatic cells Results in 4 daughter cells Meiosis causes variation Sexual reproduction fusion of gametes causes variation in offspring New chromosome combinations from parents Variation also caused by crossing over 00000 homologous chromosomes switch sections creating new combinations Key points Cancer is caused by abnormal cell division mitosis Cell division is a normal part of the cell cycle that is kept in check by regulatory genes Mitosis allows division of somatic all cells but gametes results in 2 diploid daughter cells Meiosis allows formation of gametes eggs and sperm Results in 4 haploid gametes New terms Gametes cells produced for sexual reproduction eggs and sperm Diploid 2 copies of chromosomes also called 2N found in somatic non sexceHs Haploid 1 copy of chromosomes also called N found in gametes Crossing over when sister chromatids exchange chunks of chromosome during meiosis lnterphase noncell division phase except in S phase when DNA and chromosomes replicate Chromosome packet of tightly wound DNA Homologous chromosomes matching chromosomes inherited from each parent Chromatid when chromosomes replicate sister chromatids are the copies Centromere place where sister chromatids are connected before the separate during anaphase Spindle bers attach to centromeres and help drag copied chromosomes to opposite sides of cell during anaphase Cytokinesis furrowing 39pinching off of cell membrane to complete cell division process 22515 Immunity and Vaccines Reading Notes A more technical term for germs are pathogens 0 Pathogens include Bacteria viruses protists some fungi and multicellular animals like parasites 0 Different genetic versions of pathogens are called strains Immune System System built to protect body against pathogens 0 External defenses made up of physical and chemical barriers on the surface of the body these are the rst line of the immune system 0 Internal or lnnate immune system Gets kicked into gear when the external defenses fail 0 Adaptive Immune System Layer of innate immune system Acts in a highly speci c manner against pathogens Remembers rst encounter with certain strain of pathogen and then specialized defense cells are put against those certain strains of pathogens Immune Memory feature of adaptive immune system The capacity to remember the rst encounter of certain strains of pathogens to know which specialized defense cells to send to fend of the pathogen Lecture Notes The air we breathe is full of germs Pathogens are disease causing agents and can be found on almost any surface we touch 0 Pathogens include viruses bacteria and protists as well as some fungi and multicellular animals Given that bacteria viruses and fungi are everywherewhy aren t we always sick Animals possess an immune system that protects them against most infectious agents 3 lines of defense External defenses on the surface of the body are the rst ineof defense in animals Internal defense system Innate immune system is the second line of defense Adaptive immune system third line of defense highly speci c with specialized defense cells 1St line of defense skin and mucous Skin provides general protection Mucus traps microbes amp debris in respiratory tract Cilia lining walls sweep away mucus amp foreign matter Bypassing 1St line of defense easy for many pathogens 0 Many pathogens take advantage of breaks in the skin to gain entry to their hosts 0 Other pathogens are vectored by blood feeding hosts 0 Yet others are ingested by breathing 2nOI line of defense innate immunity 1 Phagocytosis Macrophages modi ed white blood cells engulf amp digest microbes by phagocytosis 2 Cellular defenses Natural killer cells i Modi ed white blood cells ii Do not kill normal cells bc they recognize self proteins in cell membrane iii Kill antigens by releasing poreforming proteins iv Dissolve cell membrane amp it leaks to death 3 In ammation Symptoms i Reddening increased blood ow ii Swelling leaky capillaries iii Heat increased metabolism and phagocytosis iv Pain pressure or damage to nerve endings Process i Skin is torn ii Damaged cells and mast cells release histamine iii Histamine makes blood vessels leaky iv Macrophages squeeze through leaky vessels and engulf bacteria by phagocytosis v Platelets help seal off wound clotting 4 Fever 0 Effective part of body s defense against infection 0 Most bacteria viruses adapted to 986 37 C for replication 0 Raising body temperature reduces replication rate of invaders o Bacteria need iron at higher temps growth reduced 0 Higher temperature increases white blood cell activity Fever induces production of interferon travels to uninfected cells amp increases resistance to virus attack 3rOI line of defense adaptive immunitv The adaptive immune system has two types of responses 1 Antibodymediated immunity uses B cells to make antibodies 2 Cellmediated immunity uses T cells to destroy cells harboring pathogens 0 Adaptive immunity lnvolves 3 steps 1 Immune system recognizes invader antigen 2 Immune system launches attack 3 lmmune cells retain a memory of that invader 2 main players white blood cells 1 B cells 0 Mature in bone marrow 2 T cells 0 Mature in thymus 0 Step 1 immune system recognizes antigen Antigens are 0 Foreign molecule 0 Unique for each type of foreign invader 0 Unique shapes on cell surface 0 Different lymphocytes recognize a speci c antigen 0 Receptor on this membrane 0 Similar to a lock and key 0 Step 2 Antigens enters body Nonspeci c defenses attack 0 Adaptive immune response 0 About two weeks to develop 0 B cells and T cells become activated Bearing receptors speci c for antigen 0 Results in clonal selection 0 Antibody production antibodymediated immunity 0 T cells that match antigen replicate cellmediated immunity 0 Step 3 immune memory 0 B cells 0 Produce antibodies speci c for antigen Active complement proteins destroy cells by making hole in their plasma membranes Increase phagocytosis Neutralize toxins and viruses 0 B and T cells that bind to the speci c antigen have now have replicated o Disproportionately represented among population of white blood cells 0 B cells are producing antibodies 0 Circulating in blood Tcells 0 Memory Helper Tcells show antigens to other cells in immune system 0 Memory Cytotoxic Tcells destroy own bodies own cells that are infecteddamaged Blind to infected cells Release poreforming proteins and dissolve cell membrane 0 Antigens 0 Foreign molecule Unique for each type of foreign invader Unique shapes on cell surface Different lymphocytes recognize a speci c antigen 0 Receptor on this membrane 0 Similar to a lock and key Antibodymediated immunity 0 memory B cells produce antibodies speci c for antigen Activate complement proteins make holes in plasma membranes 0 Increase phagocytosis 0 Antibodies bind directly to antigens neutralizing toxins and proteins Cellmediated immunity 0 Memory Helper Tcells show antigens to other cells in immune system 0 Memory Cytotoxic Tces destroy bodies own cells that are infected damaged Bind to infected cells 0 Release poreforming proteins and dissolve cell membrane the body the immune system responds quickly and vigorously TJTlhe second time a pathogen enters L and the overall response is relatively weak Defensive response by the immune system 439 Weeks The first time a pathogen enters the hotlyF it takes several days for the immune response to build to its peak Vaccines Vaccines work by simulating adaptive immunity by exposing people to anUgens Two types of vaccines live a live virus or bacterium is used although attenuated Attenuated pathogens are usually missing key genes that make the host sick Dead or antigen pathogen is not alive or perhaps just antigen is in vaccines IMMUNITY IN VERTEBBRATES IMMUNE SYSTEM External Internal Defenses Defenses II I 39 I Physical Chemical Innate Adaptive barriers barriers immunity immunity I l 1st line Antibody Cell lPhagocytosisl lln ammation mediated mediated immunity immunity 2nol llne iscover ioo e iure nd I 2012 W WI gign SngompZfi Inc 3 I I i e types of immune cells Nonspeci c Macrophages White blood cells that engulf invading microbes amp alert other immune cells Neutrophils phagocytic white blood cells Natural killer cells WBCs that destroy infected cells Speci c B cells Lymphocytes that produce antibodies Plasma cells secrete antibodies into bloodstream Memory B cells provide future immunity T cells Lymphocytes that regulate response Cytotoxic T cells destroy speci c targeted cells HelperT cells stimulate immune responses Memory T cells provide future immunity 22715 Lecture Notes Plague Outline 0 General info 0 Characteristics quotThe Big Ideaquot Several human factors are responsible for the emergence and proliferation of emergent diseases Infectious diseases Pathogens are 0 Infect living things 0 Prior to 1944 in wars like the civil war WWI and WWII more people died from infections than from trauma 0 On march 1 1944 P zter opened the rst commercial plant for large scale production of penicillin by submerged culture in Brooklyn NY Characteristics of emerging diseases 0 Relative risk of viruses highest 0 High mutation rates 0 Bacteria protozoa an fungi intermediate 0 Helminths lowest relative risk 0 Most emerging human pathogens gt75 are zoonotic Drivers of emergence Changes in land use or agricultural practices 0 Example Nipah vuris Vectored by ying foxes Changes in human demographics and society 0 Example SARS severe acute respiratory syndrome 20022003 8098 cases worldwide 0 Poor population health HIV Malnutrition Pathogen evolution 0 Example evolution of antibiotic resistence Wild life trade 0 Climate change 0 Climate wamring can mean geographic range shifts of disease vectors Multidrug resistence Multdrug resistence has led to increasing incidence of disease with renewed virulence reemerging diseases Antibiotics not only losing power but evolving to infections that are mutating lnectious diseases Consequences 6th leading cause of species extinctions Other 5 Habitat loss Invasive species Pollution Overexploitation Global climate change FINN
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