Week 7 ANTH 1002
Popular in Social Anthropology
Popular in anthropology, evolution, sphr
This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by email@example.com Notetaker on Friday February 27, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH 1002 at George Washington University taught by Sarah Wagner in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 134 views. For similar materials see Social Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at George Washington University.
Reviews for Week 7
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 02/27/15
Week 7 Glossary social fact Emile Durkheim and the study of society French Published the Rules of sociological method in 1895 and founded the first French social scientific journal L Ann e sociologique in 1898 Obsessed with religion considered the founding father of sociology For Durkheim he wanted to understand society and its fundamental field Philosophy the nature of knowledge reality existence pursuit of knowledge Psychology the way the mind works cognition primarily an individual mind works and its relationship with behavior Establishes a school of thinkers who are also pursuing the social experiences has to become institutionalized to make it official 0 sets up a department and also a professional circulation of ideas 0 the name sociologique 0 build a network of scholars I included his nephew and takes his method after his uncle I many of his students fought in WW1 and many died and he cultivated this object of study and the war was interrupted by it I His nephew continued his studies after his death He is a product of French enlightenment and it is a positivist associated with enlightenment and the scientific knowledge and method is empirical and measurable best approach to uncovering physical social and human processes 0 He employs the scientific method to uncover these processes it is measurable Social sciences are the logical extension of natural sciences o as the natural sciences this idea that social sciences are also scientific o exhibits the same cause of objectivity rational and a pursuit of causality Background of modernity Urbanization 0 Modes of economic production 0 Away from the village factories and the in blown of modernity Industrialization Nationalism and national identity German unification Thinkers were concerned with western civilization they are tackling the ramification of modernity Modernity fragmentation breaking up the world as we know it and reorganization French I Emphasis Structure of institutions 0 Durkheim positivism mind age of reason and science I Question how do societies hold together Cohesion German romanticism the soul and heart and spirit literature and artistic transitions I Question of agency and individual con ict I Emphasis Individual act and change I Question of how societies change 0 Weber 0 Marx Similarities o All thinkers agree that societies were changing The rules of sociological method Defines the object Setting our his object of study 0 Set up your object unique object of study 0 In the rules of sociological method defining his method of sociology o Defines society as an autonomous field of study separate from physiology and sociology o Defines society how he defines society is through the social facts Tells us 0 before inquiring into the method suited to the study of social facts its is important to know which facts are commonly called social 0 But in reality three is in every society a certain group of phenomena which may be differentiated form those of social facts Refer to Page 3 0 Very distinct characteristics I Control him these ways of thinking cannot be confused with natural biology since they consists of representations ideas and of actions I More with physiological phenomenal which exists only in 0 Social fact I It is a accepted social fact to women to wear a skirt and shorts as long as their legs are shaved I What constitutes a social fact External to the individual exteriority o It is collective representation collective conscious add up the parts to make a whole its about the overlap the share and consensus that creates this collective representation Social facts have a life of their own 0 Something external that shapes who we are and shapes the decision we make It is coercive by reason by which they control them 0 Not everything we think comes from us 0 Act upon they coerce the individual they are social Idea of a crowd 0 we are then victims of the illusion of having ourselves created that which actually forced itself from withoutquot 0 It is not emerging from an individual it is a manifestation of an individual and think about the experience for being in a crowd where we were a part of it That is bigger than you Page 10 0 External force the existence of a specific sanction there is something more about than ourselves There is something social and external pressure to correct our behavior Final page he gives us the definition making in italicize o Page 13 I our definition will then include the whole relevant range of facts we say a social fact is every way of acting fixed or not capable of exercising on an individual Discussion Social fact 0 Coercive 0 External to the individual What is Durkheim s main purpose in the article 0 Basically carving out a new discipline from scratch What inspired him to develop the discipline of sociology 0 Society is heterogeneous Which school of thought within anthropology Durkheim s thought helped shape 0 Functionalism how society functions Individual thoughts subjective actions and the feeling of group or crowd effect 0 Group think gets people more excited 0 Group has an effect on us because we want to be in a group and sharing certain beliefs as much as you can What would be Geertz s reaction to Durkheim s structural and functional view of society 0 Or major disagreements Positivists empiricism measure social facts come up with hypothesis and prove it on the contrary of Geertz which had only one goal 0 Geertz is not universal looking for meaning very subjective The search of meaning is not comparable is not measured comparing universal facts about the way the world works They don t understand how people make meaning of their actions Geertz is looking to evaluate interpretations within the same place and not in comparison with society and other cultures Self and Society 0 Durkheim Studies the moment Socialization correlates with individualization Crime and deviant behavior have a social function Social solidarity and cohesion organic analogy Very important for functional anthropology Each has a different function but has to work as a whole Our actions and beliefs are not subjective Foucault French philosopher Archeology of history The more socialization the less individuality Social knowledge and practice turn us into obedient being Subjectivity is socially constituted the effect of power but raises levels of awareness regarding this topic Biopowermanagement of births reproduction and illness how we regulate each other s biology we are constantly proving that our bodies are in control Power is diffused we are the conduct of conductquot Power is not a function of law morality repression or the economic order Garcia uses Foucault to try to understand why these people are acting and behaving subjectivity by a constitution of factors Laws family relations Their subjectivity is constituted by power relations among them by socialization moral concerns Punitive concerns and approaches they have come to see themselves as this being that isn t entrapped in this endless suffering Panoptic idea that someone is watching us but they are not we are always observing and because of that reason we are obedient He is much more pessimistic we don t even know who we are we manage and control everyone else Friday s Class Glossary potlatch reciprocity balances and generalizes total system of services Subjectivity social structures and legal economic structures in Garcia Do at des the social bonds of reciprocity 9 I give so that you may givequot 9 there is such a thing as altruism as a true gift 0 Giftgiving not quite as straightforward as we might think I Larry David believes that there is no such thing as a pure gift one gives and there is an obligation to give receive example of the video in class I Reciprocity as a social fact do we feel obligated to reciprocate when we receive a gift I Marcel Mauss Studied philosophy religion in France Began drawing more and more in ethnography His work increasingly looks as social cultural anthropology Many of his colleges died in the war and he has moments of stagnation and moments of production Within the university he was also intent in securing the sociology he founded in 1924 the instate of ethnology in 1981 anti fought against anti Semitism The gift most in uential work published in 1922 0 Economic anthropology 0 His theoretical exchange in exchange and reciprocity I Reciprocity the exchange of goods and services of approximately equal value between two parties I Generalized reciprocity a type of exchange between closely related people without expectation of return ex Parent to child I Balances or symmetrical reciprocity a mode of exchange between looselyrelated individuals or groups expectations that something of equal value will be offered in return 0 Mauss poses the question at the beginning of his study I What rule of legality and selfinterest in societies of a backward or archaic type compels the gift that has been received to be obligatorily reciprocated What power resides in the object given that causes its recipient to pay it back p3 He is interesting in the social collective Mauss assets that in socalled primitive societies there is a complex system of exchange First it is not simply individuals who exchange but collectivities o it is not individuals but collectivities that impose obligation of exchange and contract upon each other The contracting parties are legal entities clans tribes and families who confront and oppose one another either in groups who meet face to face in one spot or through their chiefs or in both these ways at oncequot p 5 0 Second what is exchanged is not simply material such exchange are acts of politeness banquets rituals military services women children dances festivals and fairs in which economic transaction is only one element and in which the passing on the wealth is only one feature of a much more general and enduring contractquot p5 I These two points together explain the system of total services Finally these total services and counterservices are committed to a somewhat voluntary form by presents and gifts although in the final analysis they are strictly compulsory on pain of private or public welfare We propose to call all this the system of total servicesquot 5 6 When you fail you are breaking the bond of reciprocity acting against social fact and that has sanctions Exchange and reciprocity the example of the potlatch I Most native cultures on the Northwest Coast had potlatches including the Kwakiutl and the Tlingit tribes Potlatches were social occasion given by a host to establish or uphold his status position in society They were often held to mark a significant event in his family such as the birth of a child or a son s marriage Guests shared food and received gift or payment Potlatches were also the venue in which ownership to economic and ceremonial privileges was asserted displays and formally transferred to heirs o The significance and nature of gifting in Northwest coast in potlatches has varied through time and across cultures It is commonly portrayed as extremely competitive with hosts bankrupting themselves to outdo their rivals and aggressively destroying property I You loose faith and prestige They want to assert power and maintain the structure of this power they were gifted o Potlatch bowls Chest as potlatch gift These articles that also bear emblems covered with faces eyes and animal and human figures all are living beings each one of these precious things possess moreover productive power It is not a mere sign and pledge it is also a sign and a pledge of wealth the magical and religious symbol of rank and plentyquot p 32 0 Yet what is noteworthy about these tribes is the principle of rivalry and hostility that prevails in all these practicesquot page 6 o the potlatch is about rivalry it is essentially agonistic aggressive combative 0 we propose to reserve the term potlatch for this kind of institution that we might call total services of an agonistic typequot With the example of the North American potlatch Mauss sets up the famous triad of obligations found in the system of gift exchange 0 The obligation to give the obligation to receive and the obligation to reciprocate p 3943
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'