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February 23-27 notes

by: Michael Hummel

February 23-27 notes Bio106

Marketplace > Washington State University > Biology > Bio106 > February 23 27 notes
Michael Hummel
GPA 3.0
Biology 106
Dr Asaph Cousins

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About this Document

Here are the notes and clicker questions for this week. I will be posting a study guide over this weekend. Get ready for it!
Biology 106
Dr Asaph Cousins
Class Notes
25 ?




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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Michael Hummel on Friday February 27, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Bio106 at Washington State University taught by Dr Asaph Cousins in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 83 views. For similar materials see Biology 106 in Biology at Washington State University.


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Date Created: 02/27/15
Plants respond to attack s by herbivores and pathogens Plants are base of the food chain Attacked by wide range of planteating herbivores animals Also susceptible to infection by viruses Some plants recruit predatory animals to stop herbivores Ex Parasitoid wasps lay their eggs within caterpillars and they start to digest the caterpillar from the inside out Defense against Pathogens First line of defense physical Barrier Second line of defense attacks pathogen and prevents it from spreading degrading of proteins and genetic information to minimize pathogen reproduction and access to nutrients Clicker Question Plants often use changes in day lengthphotoperiiod to trigger events such as dormancy and flowering It is logical that plants have evolved this mechanism because photoperiod changes are more predictable than air temperature changes alter the amount of nutrients available to the plant are modified by soil temperature changes are correlated with moisture availability Dowgt FUNGI Fungi are heterotrophs that feed by absorption Heterotrophs and absorb nutrients from outside of their body Use enzymes to break complex molecules Ecollogical Success Decomposers Parasites mutualists Early colonizers of land probably as symbionts with plants Hyphal Stucture Most are multicellular Cells divided by septa Cd vol Mum Col 0 A l o 3 39039 39 1 39 wan 39 quot mo 393 0 u an my me nu an Some have no cross wallCoenocytic Body Structure The morphology of multicellular fungi enhances ability to absorb nutrients Chitin Think pair share Provide a example of an analogous feature between plants and fungi roots stems Fungi Produce spores through sexual or asexual life cycles Fungi propagate themsleves by producing vast numbers of spores either sexually or asexually FU39 W 4009 rv Asexual on left sexual on right When a mycelium infiltrates an unexploited source of organic matter what re most likely to appear within the food source soon thereafter A WPPF Fungal fruiting body Spornia fungal enzymes Increased oxygen levels Larger bacterial populations Fungal Phylum Distinguishing Features of Morphology and Life Cycles Chytridiomycota chytridsFlagellated spores Zygomycota zygote fungi Resistant zygosporangium as sexual stage Glomeromycota arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi Arbuscular mycorrhizae formed with plants Ascomycota ascomycetes or sac fungi Sexual spores ascospores borne internally in sacs called asci vast numbers of asexual spores conidia produced Basidiomycota basidiomycetes or club fungi Distinguishing Features of Morphology and Life Cycles Elaborate fruiting body basidiocarp containing many basidia that produce sexual spores basidiospores Flagellat Mycorrhizae mutually benefices relationships between fungi and plant roots Mycorrihizae fungas roots deliveer minerals and receives organic nutrients Ectomycorrhizal fungiGrow in extracellular space of roots Endomycorrhizal Fungi Hyphae go through cell wall to plasma membrane Ascomycetes Live in marin freshwater and terrestrial habitats Produce scalike asci containedin fruiting bodies called ascocarps commonl called sac fungi Think pair share What are some potential implications if there were no decomposers If there were no decomposers there would be piles of organic material building up It would be like a garbage man not coming Basidiomycetes lnclude mushrooms puffballs and shelf fungi mycorrhizae and plant parasites The basidiomycetes are also called fungi Many are decomposers of wood Fungi plant key roles in nutrient cycling ecological interactions and human welfare DecomposersEssential recycling between the living and nonliving Tungusplant symbiosis Mycorrhizae increase plant productivity Tungusanimal symbiosis helping break down plant material Lichens Symbiotic association of photosynthetic microorganisms held i fungal hyphae The fungal component is the most often an ascomycete Algae or cyanobacteria occupy an inner layer below the lichen surface in both lichens and mycorrhizae what does the fungal partner provide to its photosynthetic partner ACarbohydates BFixed nitrogen Cantibiotics Dwater and minerals Eprotection from harmful UV Pathogens About 30 of known fungal species are parasites mostly on or in plants Practical Uses of Fungi Make cheeses alcoholic drinks and bread Genetic research on fungi is leading to applications in biotechnology Antibiotics produced by fungi treat bacterial infections Chapter 29 PLant diversity I How plants colonized land Chlorophytes include Unicellular colonial multicellular forms Morphological and biochemical evidence Five key traits Similarities in cell wall synthesis photorespiratory enzymes structure of sperm similarities during cell division homologous chloroplast


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