Plsc 101 Week Six Notes
Plsc 101 Week Six Notes plsc 101
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by randomchic12 on Saturday April 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to plsc 101 at Louisiana Tech University taught by Dr. Paul Jackson in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 38 views. For similar materials see plant science in Botany at Louisiana Tech University.
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Date Created: 04/23/16
1 Plsc 101 Exam 3 Fertilizers 67 pH optimum uptake in soil Fertilizer Formulations liquid soluble forms solution in water; applied directly to plants and available immediately two slow release types: granular granules; noncoated; evenly spread around plants water aids breakdown of some medium vs. coarse grade & longevity coated coated with a plastic or sulfur moisture or temp activated ex: Osmocote® uses a porous plastic resin 201020: 20% nitrogen; 10% phosphate; 20% potassium [not always the whole % of phosphate & potassium because oxygen is also with it: P O ] 2 5 Nutrient Mobility chelation compound formed when a metallic ion (micronutrient) binds to a molecule (organic matter) increases solubility of Fe, Zn, Cu, & Mn always a metal that requires chelation Fertilizer Filler filler: carrier of fertilizer ensures even distribution of nutrients helps prevent fertilizer “burn” of plants [take up 2 many nutrients at once] types of filler: biosolids (sewage sludge) clay materials 2 vermiculite (mineral used in soil mixes) Nitrogen Sources (ranking based on availability) 1. Ammonium nitrate (34% N); most common [3400 no phosphorus or potassium] 2. Ammonium sulfate (21% N); lower N content [has N and sulfur] [sulfur lowers pH] 3. Urea (46% N); drawback is volatilization of N urea has most N content but highly volatile so not considered having most available N (least available N) 4. Sodium nitrate (16% N) 5. Calcium nitrate (15% N) 6. Potassium nitrate possible source of K Phosphorous Sources 1. Triple superphosphate (TSP) High P (4452%) 2. Diammonium phosphate (DAP) more soluble than TSP and contains some N (18460) 3. Phosphoric acid (H3PO 4 soluble source of P; used to acidify irrigation water Potassium Sources 1. Potassium chloride Muriate of potash; most common K source (3951%) [muriate refers to chlorine or chloride] 2. Potassium sulfate 3 sulfate of potash; similar to KCl with added sulfur (3942%) Lime provides source of calcium and magnesium calcitic limestone = only Ca [raise pH] dolomitic limestone = Ca & Mg [raise pH] increases pH Fertilizer Concentrations based mainly on amount of NPK for ex: a 20 (N)20 (P) 20 (K) fertilizer: nitrogen = 20 % phosphorous = 20% P O 2no5 straight P) Potassium = 20% K O (2ot straight K) how to calculate % of N, P, & K nitrogen = 20% N phosphorous = 20 x 0.44 = 8.8% P so, of the 20% P 2 5,8% is straight P *always multiply % of P by 0.44 to find straight P % Potassium = 20 x 0.83 = 16.6% K so, of the 20% K 02 16.6 % is straight K *always multiply % of K by 0.83 to find straight K % NPK in pounds per bag theoretically, if the previous 202020 bag of fertilizer weighs 50 pounds: 50 x 0.20 = 10 lbs. of N 50 x 0.088 = 4.4 lbs. of P 50 x 0.166 = 8.3 lbs. of K so, all 3 nutrients add up to 22.7 of the 50 lb. bag that means 27.3 lbs. is filler material 4 April 21, 2016 Crop Plants & the Environment Fertilizers, environmental effects, crops (test 3) Climate crops are profitable when grown in welladapted regions (soil, water, temperature) climatic difference are mainly due to differences in: latitude altitude distances from large bodies of water ocean currents direction and intensity of winds Precipitation rainfall effectiveness depends on: time of year it falls rapidity intensity of each event seasonal evaporation Temperature each crop has a minimum, optimum, and maximum range for growth 1. Warm season grow best in warm conditions can be damaged by cool/cold weather ex: corn, cotton, rice, soybean, sugarcane, peanut 2. Cool season 5 grow best in cool conditions can be damaged by hot weather ex: wheat, broccoli, cabbage, collard greens cold hardiness factors (winter survivability) What is the lowest temp in which plants can grow and survive? plants are given a zone rating based on the USDA Hardiness Zone Map zones = avg annual minimum temp variation of F each zone broken down further into 5 F sections (A or B) doesn’t take into account single winter events heat zone factors (heat survivability) how many days of heat exposure can a plant endure before being damaged/killed? heat days (days >86 F) are tracked 12 zones; heat zone = avg # of heat days for that region not a popular map and few plants are rated much variation due to unpredictable factors (drought, elevation, compaction, etc.) length of growing season number of days between the average date of the last spring frost and first fall frost cotton requires 200 days of frostfree weather drought can limit the length of growing season Light light is required for chlorophyll formation & photosynthesis photoperiodism process where plant growth is influenced by the relative length of day and night long day plants short day plants 6 long day plants: longer days = flowering shorter days = vegetative growth ex: wheat, chrysanthemums initiates flowering when exposed to longer days short day plants: longer days = vegetative growth (flowering delayed) shorter days = flowering ex: rice, soybeans, poinsettias initiates flowering when exposed to shorter days the length of night (dark period) is the critical determinant; not the length of day (light period) scenario: short day plant 1. Requires prolonged darkness for flowering 2. Short interval of light during the night 3. Flowering delayed scenario: long day plant 1. Requires longer periods of light for flowering 2. Brief period of light during the night 3. Flowering is hastened dayneutral plants that are indifferent in response to photoperiodic influences Ex: cotton
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