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Plsc 101 Week Six Notes

by: randomchic12

Plsc 101 Week Six Notes plsc 101

Marketplace > Louisiana Tech University > Botany > plsc 101 > Plsc 101 Week Six Notes
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About this Document

These notes cover what was discussed in class during week six. That includes the subjects of Fertilizers and Crop Plants & the Environment.
plant science
Dr. Paul Jackson
Class Notes
fertilizers, granular, coated, Nutrient, chelation, filler, nitrogen, ammonium, nitrate, sulfate, urea, sodium, Calcium, potassium, phosphorous, superphosphate, di-ammonium, phosphoric, acid, chloride, limestone, concentration, crops, crop, plants, plant, Environment, climate, latitude, altitude, precipitation, temperature, rainfall, hardiness, drought, light, Photoperiodism, shortdayplants, longdayplants, dayneutral, heatzonefactors, coldhardinessfactors
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by randomchic12 on Saturday April 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to plsc 101 at Louisiana Tech University taught by Dr. Paul Jackson in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 38 views. For similar materials see plant science in Botany at Louisiana Tech University.

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Date Created: 04/23/16
1 Plsc 101 Exam 3 Fertilizers ­6­7 pH optimum uptake in soil ­Fertilizer Formulations ­liquid soluble­ forms solution in water; applied directly to plants and available  immediately ­two slow release types: ­granular­ granules; non­coated; evenly spread around plants ­water aids breakdown of some ­medium vs. coarse grade & longevity ­coated­ coated with a plastic or sulfur ­moisture or temp activated ­ex: Osmocote® uses a porous plastic resin ­20­10­20: 20% nitrogen; 10% phosphate; 20% potassium [not always the  whole % of phosphate & potassium because oxygen is also with it: P O ] 2 5 ­Nutrient Mobility ­chelation­ compound formed when a metallic ion (micronutrient) binds to a  molecule (organic matter) ­increases solubility of Fe, Zn, Cu, & Mn ­always a metal that requires chelation ­Fertilizer Filler ­filler: ­carrier of fertilizer ­ensures even distribution of nutrients ­helps prevent fertilizer “burn” of plants [take up 2 many nutrients at once] ­types of filler: ­bio­solids (sewage sludge) ­clay materials 2 ­vermiculite (mineral used in soil mixes) ­Nitrogen Sources (ranking based on availability) 1. Ammonium nitrate ­ (34% N); most common [34­0­0 no phosphorus or potassium] 2. Ammonium sulfate ­ (21% N); lower N content [has N and sulfur] [sulfur lowers pH] 3. Urea ­ (46% N); drawback is volatilization of N ­urea has most N content but highly volatile so not considered having most available N (least available N) 4. Sodium nitrate ­ (16% N) 5. Calcium nitrate ­ (15% N) 6. Potassium nitrate ­possible source of K ­Phosphorous Sources 1. Triple superphosphate (TSP) ­High P (44­52%) 2. Di­ammonium phosphate (DAP) ­more soluble than TSP and contains some N (18­46­0) 3. Phosphoric acid (H3PO 4 ­soluble source of P; used to acidify irrigation water ­Potassium Sources 1. Potassium chloride ­Muriate of potash; most common K source (39­51%) ­[muriate refers to chlorine or chloride] 2. Potassium sulfate 3 ­sulfate of potash; similar to KCl with added sulfur (39­42%) ­Lime provides source of calcium and magnesium ­calcitic limestone = only Ca [raise pH] ­dolomitic limestone = Ca & Mg [raise pH] ­increases pH ­Fertilizer Concentrations ­based mainly on amount of N­P­K ­for ex: a 20 (N)­20 (P)­ 20 (K) fertilizer: ­nitrogen = 20 % ­phosphorous = 20% P O  2no5 straight P) ­Potassium = 20% K O (2ot straight K) ­how to calculate % of N, P, & K ­nitrogen = 20% N ­phosphorous = 20 x 0.44 = 8.8% P ­so, of the 20% P 2  5,8% is straight P *­always multiply % of P by 0.44 to find straight P % ­Potassium = 20 x 0.83 = 16.6% K ­so, of the 20% K 02 16.6 % is straight K *­always multiply % of K by 0.83 to find straight K % ­N­P­K in pounds per bag ­theoretically, if the previous 20­20­20 bag of fertilizer weighs 50 pounds: ­50 x 0.20 = 10 lbs. of N ­50 x 0.088 = 4.4 lbs. of P ­50 x 0.166 = 8.3 lbs. of K ­so, all 3 nutrients add up to 22.7 of the 50 lb. bag ­that means 27.3 lbs. is filler material 4 April 21, 2016 Crop Plants & the Environment Fertilizers, environmental effects, crops (test 3) ­Climate ­crops are profitable when grown in well­adapted regions (soil, water, temperature) ­climatic difference are mainly due to differences in: ­latitude ­altitude ­distances from large bodies of water ­ocean currents ­direction and intensity of winds ­Precipitation ­rainfall effectiveness depends on: ­time of year it falls ­rapidity ­intensity of each event ­seasonal evaporation ­Temperature ­each crop has a minimum, optimum, and maximum range for growth ­1. Warm season ­grow best in warm conditions ­can be damaged by cool/cold weather ­ex: corn, cotton, rice, soybean, sugarcane, peanut ­2. Cool season 5 ­grow best in cool conditions ­can be damaged by hot weather ­ex: wheat, broccoli, cabbage, collard greens ­cold hardiness factors (winter survivability) ­What is the lowest temp in which plants can grow and survive? ­plants are given a zone rating based on the USDA Hardiness Zone Map ­zones = avg annual minimum temp variation of  F ­each zone broken down further into 5 F sections (A or B) ­doesn’t take into account single winter events ­heat zone factors (heat survivability) ­how many days of heat exposure can a plant endure before being  damaged/killed? ­heat days (days >86 F) are tracked ­12 zones; heat zone = avg # of heat days for that region ­not a popular map and few plants are rated ­much variation due to unpredictable factors (drought, elevation, compaction,  etc.) ­length of growing season ­number of days between the average date of the last spring frost and first fall frost ­cotton requires 200 days of frost­free weather ­drought can limit the length of growing season ­Light ­light is required for chlorophyll formation & photosynthesis ­photoperiodism­ process where plant growth is influenced by the relative length of day  and night ­long day plants ­short day plants 6 ­long day plants: ­longer days = flowering ­shorter days = vegetative growth ­ex: wheat, chrysanthemums ­initiates flowering when exposed to longer days ­short day plants: ­longer days = vegetative growth (flowering delayed) ­shorter days = flowering ­ex: rice, soybeans, poinsettias ­initiates flowering when exposed to shorter days ­the length of night (dark period) is the critical determinant; not the length of day (light  period) ­scenario: short day plant ­1. Requires prolonged darkness for flowering ­2. Short interval of light during the night ­3. Flowering delayed ­scenario: long day plant ­1. Requires longer periods of light for flowering ­2. Brief period of light during the night ­3. Flowering is hastened ­day­neutral­ plants that are indifferent in response to photoperiodic influences Ex: cotton


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