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Chapter 6 Notes

by: Whitley Lubeck

Chapter 6 Notes PSY1001

Whitley Lubeck
U of M
GPA 3.81
Professor Briggs

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About this Document

Here are notes to Chapter 6 in our book! Six pages of notes is so much easier to read through versus 40 pages in the book - enjoy!
Professor Briggs
Class Notes
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Whitley Lubeck on Friday February 27, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY1001 at University of Minnesota taught by Professor Briggs in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 58 views. For similar materials see Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Minnesota.


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Date Created: 02/27/15
CHAPTER 6 LEARNING pages 206239 learning change in an organism s behavior or thought as a result of experience 0 lies at the heart of every domain of psychology Habituation process by which we respond less strongly over time to repeated stimuli teeth against teeth or roof of mouth 0 studied by measuring sweat because perspiration on our fingertips is a good indicator of anxiety 0 the skin conductance response research shows stop sweating sooner for weak stimuli 0 experience respond then stop responding Sensitization repeated exposure to stimuli did not lead to habituation but instead respond more strongly over time ex someone whispering while you study Classical Conditioning Pavlovian conditioning form of learning in which animals come to respond to a previously neutral stimulus that had been paired with another stimulus that elicits an automatic response 0 Discovered by Ivan Pavlov 0 primary research was digestion on dogs I sticking tub into salivary glands to study digestive responses to meat powderthey began salivating to the stimuli associated with the meat powerand led to this term 0 learning to connect stimulus forming associations 0 unconditioned stimulus UCS stimulus that elicits an automatic response meat powder unconditioned response URS automatic response to non neutral stimulus that does not need to be learned salivation I automatically happens response of a product of nature Conditioned response CR response previously associated with a nonneutral stimulus that is elicited by a neutral stimulus through conditioning I product of nurture experience I dogs salivated to the metronome Conditioned stimulus CS initially neutral stimulus that comes to elicit a response due to association with an unconditioned stimulus 0 Three phases 0 Acquisition learning phase during which a conditioned response is established Extinction gradual reduction and eventual elimination of the conditioned response after the conditioned stimulus is presented repeatedly without the unconditioned stimulus I after times of having metronome wout meat powderdogs eventually stopped salivating in response to it I creates a new response ex the absence of salivation I doesn t vanish completely is only overwritten w new behavior 0 Spontaneous Recovery sudden reemergence of an extinct conditioned response after a delay in exposure to the conditioned stimulus I renewal effect sudden re emergence of a conditioned response following extinction when an animal is returned to the environment in which the conditioned response was acquired o Stimulus Generalization process by which conditioned stimuli similar but not identical to the original conditioned stimulus elicit a conditioned response 0 Stimulus Discrimination process by which organisms display a less pronounced conditioned response to conditioned stimuli that differ from the original conditioned stimulus 0 example fear of tornado in moviescary movie vs tornado in real life HigherOrder Conditioning developing a conditioned response to a conditioned stimulus by virtue of its association with another conditioned stimulus example pic of a circle shown with the tone to salivation from meat powder 0 response gets weaker as more and more added secondorder conditioning then thirdorder conditioningso on wout classical conditioning we couldn t develop physiological associations to stimuli that signal biologically important events ex things we want to eat 0 advertising classical conditioned connections between their brands and positive emotions o latent inhibition difficulty in establishing classical conditioning to a conditioned stimulus we ve repeatedly experienced alone that is without the unconditioned stimulus acquisition of fears and phobias explain how we come to fear or avoid stimuli 0 performed by John B Watson Little Albert liked rats John struck gong behind rat began to cry at just the rat then at random white things such as rabbit or Santa Claus 0 Mary Cover Jones Little Peter afraid of rabbits she gave him candy with every time with the rabbit soon was pleasant rather than fear 0 Page 213 TABLE 61 list of common phobias o Fe shes o Fetishism sexual attraction to nonliving things 0 may arise in part from classical conditioning I ex japanese quail with the cylindrical object soon they attempted to mate with the object Disgust Reactions something good associated with something bad 0 chocolate fudge in the shape of dog feces Operant Conditioning learning controlled by the consequences of the organism39s behavior get something out of response reward 0 example put money into vending machine get a drink operants behaviors produced by the who to receive a reward Law of effect principle asserting that if a stimulus followed by a behavior results in a reward the stimulus is more likely to give rise to the behavior in the future more likely to repeat the behavior 0 EL Thorndike did experiment on cats in box w rat outside only needed to hit correct solution for box to open Once got it right and redid experiment escape decreased gradually over 60 trials human learning occurs by trial and error 0 insight grasping the underlying nature of a problem I AAlearned that cats don t learn by this Skinner Box small animal chamber constructed by BF Skinner to allow sustained periods of conditioning to be administered and behaviors to be recorded unsupervised o electronically records animal s responses and prints out a graph 0 Negative no human observation could miss some important behaviors Reinforcement outcome or consequence of a behavior that strengthens the probability of the behavior positive reinforcement presentation of a stimulus that strengthens the probability of the behavior 0 example give a chocolate to kid who picked up toys negative reinforcement removal of a stimulus that strengthens the probability of the behavior 0 example when kid stops whining allow to end timeout early Punishment outcome or consequence of a behavior that weakens the probability of the behavior Positive administering a stimulus ex spanking negative taking away a stimulus ex taking away a favorite toy disadvantages only tells what NOT to do creates anxiety may encourage subversive behavior become sneakier acting as a model can convey that bad things are acceptable ie slapping association with aggressiveness Discriminative Stimulus stimulus that signals the presence of reinforcement ex snapping at a dog so it will come for you to pet it Acquisition Extinction stop delivering reinforcers following a previously reinforced behavior ex child screams give toy may cause child to scream now for the toy instead buy earplugs and don t give toyeventually will stop screaming Spontaneous Recovery Stimulus Generalization ex pigeons also distinguish similar paintings Stimulus Discrimination ex feeding food to pigeons so can distinct two dif painting by Monet Schedule of Reinforcement pattern of reinforcing behavior continuous reinforcement reinforcing a behavior every time it occurs resulting in faster learning but faster extinction than only occasional reinforcement paiial reinforcement only occasional reinforcement of a behavior resulting in slower extinction than if the behavior had been reinforced continually 0 Principles of reinforcement 0 Consistency of administering reinforcement I some are fixed I others are variable 0 basis of administering reinforcement I ratio schedules animal reinforced on the basis of the of responses tend to yield higher rates of responding I interval schedules basis of the amount of time elapsed since the last reinforcement o Fixed ratio FR schedule pattern in which we provide reinforcement following a regular number of responses 0 ex give a rat something after presses lever 15 times 0 Variable ratio VR schedule pattern in which we provide reinforcement after a specific number of responses on average with the number varying randomly 0 yield the highest rate of responding to all 0 example casino reward on an irregular basis based on gambler s responses this keeps gamblers hooked o Fixed interval Fl schedule pattern in which we provide reinforcement for producing the response at least once following a specified time interval 0 example being paid once a week 0 Variable interval VI schedule pattern in which we provide reinforcement for producing the response at least once during an average time interval with the interval varying randomly Applications 0 Animal Training circus zoo aquarium o Shaping conditioning a target behavior by progressively reinforcing behavior that come closer and closer to the target 0 Chaining A cue for B B to C and so on o Overcoming procrastination reinforce yourself going out w friends only AFTER homework is done Operant conditioning plays an important role in human superstitions Therapeutic ApplicationsClinical Settings o token economy systems for reinforcing appropriate behaviors and extinguishing inappropriate ones 0 Secondary reinforcers neutral object that becomes associated with a primary reinforcer tokens points etc 0 Primary Reinforcers item or outcome that naturally increases the target behavior fav food or drink 0 get so many pointscan trade in for something you like Difference between operant amp classical conditioning Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Target behavior is Elicited automatically Emitted voluntarily Reward is Provided unconditionally contingent on behavior Behavior depends Autonomic nervous system skeletal muscles primarily on Putting operant amp classical conditioning together 0 similar 0 acquisition extinction stimulus generalization 0 Difference o classical conditioning amygdala o operant conditioning brain areas rich in dopamine linked to reward o interact 0 have phobias why don t they go away I because twoprocess theory we need both classical and operant conditioning to explain the persistence of anxiety disorders Cognitive Models of Learning 0 we have moved to SOR psychology stimulus organism response organism interprets the stimulus before producing a response 0 form of learning depends on thinking 0 Latent learning learning thats not directly observable 0 implies reinforcement isn t necessary for learning 0 Cognitive Maps mental representation of how a physical space is organized internal blueprints example how we know our way around campus 0 Observation Learning learning by watching others models parents teachers those in uen aD 0 often regarded as a form of latent learning because allows to learn without reinforcement o spares expense of having to learn firsthand 0 Alfred Bandura Bobo Doll aggression experiment some children watched adult act aggressively on Bobo Doll put in play room moved to diff one with just a Bobo doll observed that these children watched and had more aggressive behavior 0 does exposure to media violence contribute to realworld violence I correlational studies longitudinal studies laboratory studies and field studies 0 all say some sort of causal relation Mirror neurons cell in the prefrontal cortex that becomes activated when an animal performs an action or observes it being performed as though imagining what it would be like to perform the behavior Insight Learning the sudden understanding of the solution to the problem Wolfgang Kohler and the chimpanzees and the bamboo sticks Biological Influences on Learning Conditioned Taste Aversions classical conditioning can lead us to develop avoidance reactions to the taste of food 0 contradicts classical conditioning like palov and dogs 0 in contrast these only require one trial to develop 0 delay between CS and U08 can be as long as 6 to 8 hours 0 remarkably specific and display little evidence of stimulus generalization equipotentiality assumption claim that we can classically condition all 083 equally well to all UCSs Preparedness how we can explain the distribution of phobias in the population evolutionary predisposition to learn some pairings of fears stimuli over others owing to their survival value 0 ex not afraid of outlets kitchen appliance of our time o likely to develop illusory correlations association that is nonexistent Instinctive Drift tendency for animals to return to innate behaviors following repeated reinforcement 0 ex racoons dropping coins into piggy banks could pick up but then rubbed them together their act of rinsing were treating the coins like food Learning Fads Do they work a Sleep assisted learning learning new material while asleep 0 extraordinary claim needs extraordinary evidence I example sailors learning morse code group also listened while sleeping learned three weeks faster than other sailors BUT failed to rule out alternative explanations they may have awoken from this playing while sleeping Accelerated Learning allow people to pick up new information anywhere between 25100 s times their normal learning speeds visualize info play music breathing regular rhythm O extraordinary claim Discovery Learning giving students experimental materials and asking them to figure out the scientific principles on their own Learning Styles an individual s preferred or optimal method of acquiring new information 0 O O O analytical break down into different components holistic view problem as whole verbal talk through problems spatial visualize problems


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