Lecture notes for 2/23-2-27
Lecture notes for 2/23-2-27 PHI 101
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Avi Fox on Friday February 27, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PHI 101 at University of Miami taught by Noel Alphonse in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 49 views. For similar materials see INTRO TO PHILOSOPHY in PHIL-Philosophy at University of Miami.
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Date Created: 02/27/15
Philosophy 101 NonConsequentialist Categorical imperative one that must be obeyed under all condition Categorical imperativel what makes an action right is that everyone could act on it universalizable and you would be willing to have everyone act on itreversible 0 Perfect duty a duty that has no exceptions so must always be performed 0 Imperfect duties has exceptions Categorical imperative2 what makes an action right is that it treats people as ends in themselves people have intrinsic value and not merely as a means to an end what you get out of them instrumentally valuable Consequentialist an action is right if and only if it leads to the greatest good for the greatest number Nonconsequentialist Deontology An action is right based on adherence to a rule or a set of rules Nonconsequentialist An action is right or wrong without reference to the consequences Intrinsic value actions are intrinsically right or wrong by their own nature Formal theory uses the form of actions to determine if an action is right or wrong Hypothetical Imperative command will never serve as a basis for morality 1 Based on desire 2 If situations deals with specific and hypothetical situations if you want to be a good partner you should avoid getting caught cheating 3 Always consequences Categorical Imperative can be applied in all actions 0 Absolute demands 0 If you want to be moral you must follow them regardless of inclination 0 Based off the idea of good will Categorical imperative I Always act in such a way that the maxim rule you follow could apply to everyone as if it were a law of nature Always act in such a way that the rule you follow could be followed universally Universizable apply to everyone Reversible apply to you Categorical Imperative II Never use a person as a means to an end Being human doesn t define a person All rational beings are members of the moral community Breaking these imperatives lead to contradictions and question someone s autonomy Autonomy right to selfdetermination Good will has the intention of acting in conformity With the categorical imperative Michael Humer America s unjust Drug war 2 main arguments against the legalization of drugs 1 Drug use is very harmful to users 2 The government should prohibit people from doing that harm themselves 3 The government should prohibit drug use p r Drug use reliably causes harm to third parties 2 The government should prohibit people from doing harm to others 3 The government should prohibit drug use Questions the morality of these laws through the categorical imperative argument for prohibition Unnatural unnatural to use drugs to enhance themselves Lots of things in life are unnatural and acceptable Argument for the legalization of Drugs 1People have the right to do Whatever they like With their bodies provide that they do not violate the rights of others 2 Drug use doesn t violate the rights of others 3Therefore people have a right to use drugs John Corvino why shouldn t Tommy and Jimmy Have sex A Defense of Homosexuality Five meanings of unnatural against homosexuality 1 What is unusual or abnormal is unnatural 2 what other animals don t do is unnatural 3what doesn t proceed from innate desires is unnatural 4 What violate an organ s principle purpose is unnatural 5 What is disgusting or offensive is unnatural 1 Just because a minority of people do it doesn t make it unnatural Not everyone is ambidextrous but that doesn t make those who are immoral 2 This statement is false there are many recorded times in nature that animals have homosexual relationships Since when do we base our morals on what animals do 3 There are 2 points of view one that people are born that way or it s a choice If people are born that way then it would by definition be natural IF they have no control then you cant blame them Just because someone does something one way doesn t make the other way wrong just because its not naturally done that way The argument here can be said that homosexual sex cant result in procreation But organs to begin with have many functions You cant say that its ok to use lips to speak to eat to lick to kiss women but immoral if it s a man There are many aspects of daily life that is disgusting but is not considered immoral such as cleaning toilets or dealing with trash Other arguments against homosexuality is that is harmful both STD wise and that it destroys society Another argument is that it goes against the bible These arguments are all flawed For one STD s can be avoided by practicing safe sex Lesbians actually have the lowest rates of stds Another argument is that homosexuality will destroy society This is flawed because there are other situations which don t result in kids such as parents who cant have any kids or don t want kids What about priests who stay celibate These people aren t considered immoral The worst argument comes from it goes against biblical teachings In the bible it tells people not to eat pig or to charge people interest yet these are both common and acts that aren t considered immoral Some of these biblical teachings become irrelevant as time goes on
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