feb 23-27 Biology 230
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alejandra Brito on Friday February 27, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Biology 230 at San Francisco State University taught by kimberly Tanner in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 159 views. For similar materials see Biology 230 in Biology at San Francisco State University.
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Date Created: 02/27/15
Bio Notes Monday February 23 2015 Information Flow 0 Central dogmaGene expression 0 DNA RNA Protein lnhertance 0 From a parent cell to daughter cell 0 From one generation to another generation quotPeanut Butter can cause cancerquot 0 George Washington Carver 0 Received a BS in 1894 and MS in 1896 in Agricultural science from Iowa State University 0 Rescued agriculture in the south with his studies of peanut cultivation and product development Potential Links For Against Mycotoxin Aspergillus found many places Cancer Fatty diet Cancer Aspergillums Fungus can grow in lungs Not enough for cancer Mycotoxin mutation P53 gene Aspergillus can grow on peanuts Herpatoma liver Cancer common in Uganda where peanuts grow ASPERGILLUS Is a fungus that grows on nuts and grains in hot and humid environments Aspergillus fungi produce a atoxin Which regions of the word do u predict have the highest levels of a atoxin minimum a 1 I Lhm n ar par quotquot n li l ln 53 i an9 115 E Elli El ESE a El n a M5325 t High Note not taken form class notes so refer to PowerPoint It s just an image off the internet Enzymes in the liver concert a atoxin into a highly reactive molecule AFlLAT HlFl Hepatic i g Cytochrome pd AF LATEEIIHEl EeEFi lll A atoxin binds to Guanines in DNA The result is called DNA adduct 0 The product the covalent addition of a chemical mutagen to a nitrogen base ACTG Before a cell divides the DNA must be copied replicated DNA Replication a Palm t molemula bl Separation all M Naughtart DINA molautla arlrnde each nannitini all awna parental Strand mcll Inna Etr Polymerase quotmispairsquot an A with the a atoxin adduct Aflatoxin Pulymerase A atoxin DNA adducts promote G to T substitution in codon 249 ofp53 Wed February 25 Allele a version of a gene 0 Any DNA sequence counts P53 breaks on cell division 0 Change leads to loss of function A atoxin Damages DNA Chemicals in the cigarette can alter DNA Five key ideas about the inheritance of cancercausing mutations 1 Mitosis occurs in somatic cells and produce two identical daughter cells a Somatic cellal cells that are NOT in the germline 2 Meiosis occurs when germline cells divide to form four different gametes a Germlineall cells that will develop into gametes in your gonads including the egg and sperm 3 Mutations primarily occur in S and M phases of dividing cells cells undergoing mthosis or meiosis l39i parent cell Fairer 05 1 S phase S phase 391 A M phase Mphiase i i w daughtercells quot39 3939 a gametes 4 New mutations can occur in somatic cells or germline cells Mutation in I Mutation in a somatic cell germline cell 5 Only mutations in germline cells and gametes can be inherited M utation in germline cell Mutation in somatic cell a Friday February 27 Which of the following causes more cases of cancer than smoking a Diet b Radiation c Alcohol d Inheritance e Sun exposure Causes o l Cancer gt ll 5 EU nl Pollution 3 Work l Viruses Amc hnl environment 5 3 4 Marisa and Herman Genes related to colon cancer Name FuncUon Apc Tumor suppressor cell division where chromosomes go to Mismatch repair segregate MYH Mismatch repair DNA repair P53 Tumor suppressor Confusions 1 How do we count the alleles in this activity a When we count alleles we only count the RNA polymerase reads 2 Why does DNA polymerase pair an A with the gadduct a Biochemistry seems to be poorly understooda mystery box 3 What does p53 do exactly a The p53 protein is a transcription activator it turns on genes that code for proteins that slow or stop the cell cycle Recommended to do before test clarifying the i erenms between IDIHIA HEP LlEh TlDH and TRAHSGHIFTIIDN YE TRANSLATIIU NI THEMES HIiF Tll 39H E THAIHELATIIDHI i l Iii i or iill39lil ll Lilli9n Uni EmailI an EmuI rlil 9i EIHA HEPLIEATIQNI E What is the purpose r 39l39 such purge it in what lliiind uni Emilia da Eh pili Eli39liii Whig melatuiieljal iei39inlm produced What am the newly produced molecules I Whn are thin mamas In the proteins titat build the monk produced mrullaeulae mppgnl Only in dividing cells In all cells i I H Elf 4 key ideas about Mitosis l Mitosis type of cell division that promotes growth and tissue repair a All but one cell type in your body is produced by mitosis gametes In adults most specialized cells have lost ability to divide Only stem cells retain the ability to divide a Stem cells are relatively unspecialized cells that can produce during a single division one daughter cell that retains stem cells properties and a second daughter cell that can give rise to a specialized cell The goal of mitosis is to create two daughter cells with identical genetic information Mitosis is like a copy machine
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