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Week 6 Lecture Notes

by: Monica Weisenbach

Week 6 Lecture Notes BIO110

Marketplace > University of Massachusetts > Biology > BIO110 > Week 6 Lecture Notes
Monica Weisenbach
GPA 3.819
Introductory Biology for Science Majors
Christiane Healey

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Hi! This weeks notes cover DNA in forensics, recombinant DNA, Epigenetics, and Gene Therapy!
Introductory Biology for Science Majors
Christiane Healey
Class Notes
Umass Amherst, UMass, 110, bio 110
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Monica Weisenbach on Friday February 27, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIO110 at University of Massachusetts taught by Christiane Healey in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 100 views. For similar materials see Introductory Biology for Science Majors in Biology at University of Massachusetts.


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Date Created: 02/27/15
Week 6 DNA as Forensics DNA fingerprinting is used in forensic science OJ Simpson trial DNA and fingerprint evidence supported his being at the crime and blood was on his clothes and car although there were issues with evidence coHec on DNA fingerprinting first came in use in courts in the 19803 A karyotype is a layout of the chromosomes Remember that humans are diploid with 2 of each chromosome Both genes on both chromosomes are transcribed one functional copy may be enough An allele is a form of a gene A person can have the same or different alleles same or different genotype Homozygous aa or AA two of the same alleles Heterozygous Aa two different alleles An AA AA The allelesgenotype can be figured out using Gel Electrophoresis DNA fragments are first multiplied using PCR DNA is negatively charged the DNA is put in a gel with a positive electrode at the other end The DNA moves through the gel separating by size because smaller fragments move faster through the gel than larger fragments forming bands Different genotypes create different bands More than DNA evidence is needed to convict someone things like motives or context DNA is supporting evidence not the mainstay It is possible to find random DNA matches as well just by comparing to a database Recombinant DNA Recombinant DNA is DNA formed by taking DNA from multiple organisms A restriction enzyme can cutout a gene of interest It works by targeting specific sequences of nucleotides It creates a sort of sticky end a sort of overhang Fragments of DNA snipped by the same restriction enzyme can be attached together 1 36 A MT 3 3 TV 3 5 I S G AATTC 3 CTTAA fV Waxadmin DNA ligase is put in with the DNA which stitches it back into a double helix Insulin for example can be made by inserting the human insulin gene into a certain bacteria which then uses the gene to create insulin which can then by purified Supreme Court has allowed the patenting of GMOs Genetically Modified Organisms The BRCA gene was once patented but it was later determined that naturally occurring sequences could not be patented Epigenetics Would identical twins have the same DNA fingerprint Technically yes but mutations could arise changing how the DNA breaks Also the phenomenon of epigenetics Even with identical DNA epigenetics constituting the epigenome can create a different profile of DNA expression which could have implications for the phenotype It s actually epigenetics that tells cells what type of cell to turn into The epigenome can be passed down at least to some extent Epigenetics the study of changes in organisms caused by modifications of gene expression rather than alternations of the actual DNA Also the study of stable longterm alterations in the transcriptional potential of a cell Epigenetic modifications chemical methyl groups attach to DNA or the proteins and stops them from being transcribed or used The genes are silenced ie not transcribed Gene Therapy What is gene therapy It s the process of introducing a functional gene into someone who carries a faulty version Viruses are used to get the functional gene into the DNA Viruses can t do anything but get into a cell they rely on hijacking the cell s own mechanisms to replicate or anything else Viruses only aim for specific types or groups of cells by using the right virus very specific groups of cells can be targeted The process The RNA version of a normal human gene is inserted into a harmless RNA virus The correct cells are removed from the body injected with the virus so the virus can insert itself into the chromosomes The engineered cells are injected back into the person Alternatively the virus with the functional gene can be injected into the person The dangers If the virus inserts itself into the wrong spot protein synthesis can be messed up Sometimes gene therapy comes with a higher risk of cancer down the road Vim Jesse Gelsinger was in a human trial for gene therapy He was the first death as a consequence of a gene therapy treatment in 1999 He died due to a reaction to the vector virus not the gene insertion His death caused a panel to decide that gene therapy had moved to the human trial stage too fast The FDA has the Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research CBER to oversee and regulate gene therapy trials and products Organ Transplants of the Future ln lab rats labgrown kidneys have been implanted and functioned The organs of recentlydecreased rats were stripped of all their cells and seeded with cells of newborn rats The cells were stripped leaving behind a matrix of connective tissue The connective tissue plays a part in telling cells what type to be This has enormous implications for human health there are thousands of people on organ transplant lists and those who do often have to take drugs to prevent rejection of the donated organs This technique could allow organs to be grown with the patient s own cells removing the risk of rejection and ensuring people actually get the organs they need Questions Production of a recombinant DNA molecule makes use of which of the following Complementary singlestranded nucleic acid sequences can come together to form a duplex molecule YES DNA can be sorted by size using gel electrophoresis TRUE BUT UNNEEDED A restriction enzyme cleaves duplex DNA molecules only at positions of certain short sequences that match the enzymes restriction site YES DNA polymerase elongates a growing DNA strand by adding nucleotides TRUE BUT UNNEEDED DNA ligase is an enzyme that can join the ends of singlestranded DNA molecules YES DNA fragments migrate through a gel according to size fragments migrate faster closer to the electrode than fragments Large negative small FALSE Large positive small FALSE Small negative large FALSE Small positive large TRUE


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