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GEOl 101:The Human Impact on Earth’s Environment I & II

by: Natalee Stanton

GEOl 101:The Human Impact on Earth’s Environment I & II 101-017

Marketplace > University of South Carolina > Geology > 101-017 > GEOl 101 The Human Impact on Earth s Environment I II
Natalee Stanton

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Geology 101-017
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Natalee Stanton on Saturday April 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 101-017 at University of South Carolina taught by in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Geology 101-017 in Geology at University of South Carolina.


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Date Created: 04/23/16
GEOL 101 The Human Impact on Earth’s Environment I & II I. Recourses and Reserves   Resources – the entire amount of material that may be available for use sometime in the future o Types   Energy –oil, natural gas  Mineral   Metallic – iron copper  Nonmetallic – sandstone, granite   Water  o Renewable – resource that can be replenished over a short time spans  (months, years, decades)  Solar  Wind  Geothermal o Nonrenewable – resources that are created by processes that take long spans  of time to form(thousands of years)   Fossil fuels  Nuclear energy   Quad­ unit of measure to measure energy  o 1015 BTU   Reserves – known resources that can be recovered economically and legally today  o Will always be smaller than total resource  Sources of energy on Earth o Incoming solar radiation o Geothermal energy  o Gravitational energy      Fossil fuels o Those energy resources that have formed as the result of the burial and  subsequent transformation of organic material  - Conventional – ones we have been using for a long time   Oil  Natural gas   Coal     Non – conventional   Shale oil  Oil shales   Tar sands  Gas hydrates  II. Coal  Process of making coal  o Production of large amounts of biomass o Preservation in an oxygen­poor environment  - EX; peat  o Burial and compaction   Thermal condition of Oil – temperature and duration  - Oil – wet gas – dry gas – gone   Effect of burning coal  - Release of carbon dioxide - Release of sulfur that contributes to acid rain - Strip (surface) miming  III. Oil and gas   Form oil and gas o Production of large amounts of biomass  o Preservation in a reducing (oxygen –poor) environment o Burial increases heat and pressure, causing maturation (breaking down of  organic matter into liquid or gas) in a source rock  - What happens after formation?   Migration out of the source rock into a porous and permeable  reservoir rock  Tapping of fluids by an impermeable deal   Shale gas – natural gas trapped within shale - Increasingly important source of natural gas in the US over the past decade - Interest has spread to potential gas shales in the rest of the world IV. Alternatives to Fossil Fuels      Nuclear energy   Advantages   Virtually inexhaustible supple  Low carbon footprint o No CO 2  Disadvantages  Potential for nuclear accidents  How to deal with spent nuclear fuel - SC is a nuclear state  Less than 50% of our energy comes from nuclear power  3  overall in the states, 1  overall per capita      Solar Energy   Advantages   Virtually inexhaustible supply  Disadvantages  Very expensive with current technology   No as portable as hydrocarbons      Geothermal energy   Advantages   Cheap and clean  Disadvantages   Cannot be transported long distances  Sample Exam Questions Most sediment accumulates __. a. In rivers and streams b. On continental shelves c. At the base of the continental slope d. On the abyssal plain  Coal forms from ____.  a. Large accumulations of dinosaur bones b. Large accumulation Plant material c. Large accumulation Coral fragments d. Large accumulation Bacterial matter  Petroleum and natural gas are considered ____ energy resources. a. Non – renewable b. Renewable c. Geothermal d. Hydrothermal The main component of natural gas in __.  a. Nitrous oxide  b. Methane  c. Carbon dioxide d. Sulfur dioxide  Formation of oil and gas occurs within which part of the earth a. Near the surface b. 5 – 10 km depths c. 10­20 km depths d. 20­30 km depths Oil and gas deposits can be found in ___. a. Anticlines b. Synclines c. Monoclines d. Homoclines 


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