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Geography 20, Week 13 Notes

by: Kayla Mathias

Geography 20, Week 13 Notes GEG 20CD

Kayla Mathias
Kutztown University of Pennsylvania
GPA 3.5

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About this Document

These notes cover the lectures from the week of 18/4-22/4. They include pre-urban development and historic urban geography.
Elements of Culture Geography
Dr. Robert Ziegenfus
Class Notes
geography, Cultural, Pre-urban, development, Urban
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kayla Mathias on Saturday April 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GEG 20CD at Kutztown University of Pennsylvania taught by Dr. Robert Ziegenfus in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Elements of Culture Geography in Geography at Kutztown University of Pennsylvania.

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Date Created: 04/23/16
Geography 20—Week 13 Notes (18/4-22/4) Wednesday, April 20 I. Pre-Urban Development A. Hunting and Gathering 1. Unspecialized—Sources of food were anything that they could find/catch. Ex: Australian Aborigines—they were nomads who travelled constantly in search of food 2. Specialized—Sources of food were more specific. Ex: Native American tribes who hunted buffalo and Eskimos whose lives revolve around “seal culture” B. Agriculture Revolution (10,000 years ago) 1. Vegetative Planting (first form of agriculture)—Ex: bananas and potatoes. Part of the plant has to be planted, rather than a seed. Originated in tropical regions (SE Asia) where the populations mainly relied on fishing and had time to experiment with agriculture 2. Seed Agriculture—Planting seeds (more common in mid-latitude regions). Wheats are thought to be the first thing ever planted in SW Asia 3. Animals—Dogs were the first domesticated animal, then cows, which are thought to have been used primarily for farming (pulling plows, etc.) rather than for meat or dairy C. Types of Agriculture (subsistent vs. commercial) 1. Subsistent—Ecuadorian jungle: All food comes from the surrounding jungle. Fields are burned every few years so that nutrients are put back in the soil Friday, April 20 II. Historic Urban Geography A. Old World Survey—The first fully developed cities were in Mesopotamia (Ur, Babylon, Assur, Tyre, Sidon, and Jerusalem) 1. Developed by 5,000 BC. Mesopotamia, Nile River Valley, and Indus River Valley, respectively 2. Later development included the Huang Ho region in China B. Many early cities were abandoned, but the idea of cities and development survived and diffused to Greece and Rome 1. In the Roman Empire, all roads led away from the city of Rome. That is how the empire grew to be so big. 2. The Romans built walls along the borders of areas they couldn’t conquer (Hadrian’s Wall between England and Scotland) 3. Cumulative developments from early cities became the basis for present- day cities in the Western World. Ex: Grid pattern (streets) C. Impact of Urbanization on the Environment 1. Development of more balanced economies i. Food surplus and exchange helped offset weather so the population can grow 2. Development of trade because of metals i. Exploit raw materials via mining (copper was the first metal to be mined, then tin, then they were combined to make bronze) ii. The Hittites discovered iron and how to use it 3. Accelerated cultural and technological progress i. Cultural: Better human organization ii. Technological: Better toolslarge impact on development—irrigation iii. Death rates in early developed cities were often very high due to lack of sanitation—human waste was often just thrown out windows and into the street


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