ch 5 PSYC 3310 Industrial-Organizational Psychology
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ashley Lara on Friday February 27, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 3310 Industrial-Organizational Psychology at University of Houston taught by Dr. Lisa Penney in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 136 views. For similar materials see Industrial-Organizational Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Houston.
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Date Created: 02/27/15
Ch 4 Types of disorders Autism Spectrum Disorder impairments in social communication and particular interests and behaviors Factors Complex genetic risk factors that alter neurobiological development parents can not cause a disorder from arising in their child trouble with identifying proximal causes of disorder Earliest signs motor development visual attention and interest in objects could be possible indicators of this developmental disorder or any other become regressive by their second birthday reduced eye contact Asocial smiling Bsocial interaction Csocial imitation Dreduced response to their own name and joint attention This regression can be combined with delays in gestural communication and language high risk infants develop in a way that inhibits language development in social interactions this inhibition is harmful in acquiring language Cognitive typical nonverbal IQ is less than 70 in 50 to 70 low IQ can be in conjunction with another disorder lack of explanation in variation in language skill executive functions are usually impaired but working memory is a strength low correlation between symptom profile and standardized measures Example low cognitive flexibility can correlate to specific interests and rigid behaviors weak central coherencecognitive differences Example is poor integration of information in context Trouble with discourse processing deficits in social cognition problem with understanding a speaker39s intentions is linked to problems with learning new words and understanding nonliteral language Language traits too much variation within this disorder from nonverbal to verbose that led to suggest if there should be distinct groups with ASD There are two phenotypes set of observed traits in a genetic profile Autism Language Normalunimpaired and typical patterns of neuroanatomical asymmetry is present Autism Language lmpaired language forming is impaired correlating to anomalies in left hemisphere structure and function with ASD there will more than likely be a presence of impairments in phonological processing and grammar that are common also in nonautistic children Form After acquiring language articulating speech sounds is usually unimpaired according to autism literature phonological short term memory is shown to be poor due to poor results in measuring nonsense word repetition phonological processing is challenging for this group in children it is common for deficits in morphosyntaX and grammar for those with Autism Language Impaired in particular use fewer grammatical morphemes to mark verb tense and agreement produce fewer short and grammatically simple sentences poor sentence repetition and impaired sentence comprehension for those with ALl Content low vocabulary is common for a minority receptive vocabulary is good semantic system is atypical and impoverished Use pragmatic deficits is universalevident in higher level discourse processing and narrative tasks poor conversational skillstoo many or too few initiations poor topic maintenance fewer contingent conversational responses socially inappropriate responses poor understanding of figurative and metaphorical language poor inferencing skills those with ALl are more likely to have challenges with higher level pragmatic language skills than ALN Literacy little focus on reading abilities varied reading patterns 30 were impaired on word and non word reading measures most have difficulty with reading comprehension In most disorders poor semantics and grammar poor reading comprehension poor phonological skills poor decoding texts like non word reading and spelling Not common in ASD ALNstronger literacy skills than ALI Clinical practice Early intervention Conditions associate Pragmatic Language Impairment and SemanticPragmatic Disorder Down syndrome Origin extra third copy of chromosome of 21 trisomy 21 Due to increased maternal age is a factor Traits Hypotonia low muscle tone microgenia small chin round face macroglossia large tongue short stature and limbs etc Risk factors higher risk for congenital heart defects gastroesophageal reflux disease thyroid dysfunction possible early onset of Alzheimer39s disease Cognitive traits Difficulty with learning and applying something new Relatively low IQ of 40 to 70 Trouble with executive functions impulse control planning cognitive flexibility lmpulse control delayed gratification involved with offtask behavior difficult to stay on task and achieve goals Language Form Reduced intelligibility may due to articulators structures andor middle ear infection Apraxia is common brain has difficulty with coordinating muscles Trouble with syntax especially expressive syntax resulting in less complex sentences fewer questions and negations Content preferred to use gestures in younger children common to use referential cues to learn but can be difficult due to short term memory difficulty learning first words Use strength bonding early on can be in terrible shape such as mutual eye contact vocalizations babbling cooing laughing can be delayed or less coordinated Literacy little known about those who achieve reading proficiency Pure tone Consists of only one frequency due to repeating itself the same way Frequency of vibration number of cycles completed in one second Simple harmonic motion vibration occurs a fixed number of times per second Elasticity Restoring force that helps an elastic medium to continue to move lnertia Tendency for motion or lack of motion to continue Swing analogy Displacement of the object would begin at the resting position and continue back and forth until the velocity diminishes Essential Constituents of Sound A Source of energy B Vibrating source C Medium of transmission Interference after a frequency from two or more sources or the signal is reflected Complex tones Result is from two or more pure tones from different frequencies added together Periodic sound waves vibration pattern is repeated itself over time Aperiodic sound waves vibration is random and no repeatable pattern Harmonics Periodic complex vibrations make signals that the component frequencies are multiples of the fundamental frequency Distinction between frequency and pitch Rise in frequency results in rise in pitch frequency number of cycles in a certain time pitch listener39s perception of frequency changes Example less than 1000 Hz resulted in fairly linear perceived pitch higher frequencies require higher changes in order for perceived pitch Intensity and Loudness lntensity physical property of acoustic signal measured in meters Loudness subjective property of intensity Chapter 5 5 ways to assess traits that are used for selection and placement 1 Psychological test certain tasks that must be completed under controlled conditions like answering questions or solving problems assess certain characteristics like ability interests knowledge personality and skill 2 Biographical information forms ask about relevant prior experience like work experience 3 Interview meeting with job applicant and an employee who has input in the hiring process 4 Work sample person performs a simulated job like given material and is required to complete a certain task 5 Assessment center series of exercises to measure job performance use more than one test to assess someone KSAO Knowledge what someone knows about a job like an attorney would know legal information Skill what someone can do like program a computer Ability the capability to learn something like a new language Other personal characteristics other traits not covered in knowledge skill ability like interests and personality useful for hiring job appraisal etc Characteristics of tests what is being assessed determines what the test about Example is lifting heavy objectstesting strength Group test assess several people at once Close ended test test taker chooses one response during a multiple choice test Open ended test test taker must generate a response Power test test taker has unlimited time to complete an exam Speed test time limit to finish an exam Performance test use of tools to display performance Cognitive ability test test different cognitive abilities like verbal or mathematical ability Psychomotor ability test assess the ability to manipulate objects Example is to evaluate hand and eye coordination Knowledge and skill test achievement test assess a person39s level of proficiency Personality test test someone39s behavior tendency in different situations Common types of personality extraversion emotional stability agreeableness conscientiousness openness to experience Emotional intelligence ability to have control and identify emotions others are experiencing Integrity test assess an applicant39s willingness to participate in productive or counterproductive behavior such as lying cheating An example is overt integrity test examines the attitude and prior behavior about honesty and moral behavior like asking is it ok to lie if you know you won39t get caught An example of personality integrity test is to predict counterproductive behavior Vocational interest identifies interests or personality of the test taker to those in that occupation Work sample a device to assess the potential job performance under standardized conditions An example is a truck driver would be required to drive Assessment center examines how well someone can complete some tasks of a job like if they person can type fast and accurately for a secretary position
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