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2/24-2/26 notes

by: Alec Greenspoon

2/24-2/26 notes KIN 421

Alec Greenspoon
GPA 3.65
advanced systemic physiology
Dr. Perry

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All notes from lecture and discussion
advanced systemic physiology
Dr. Perry
Class Notes
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alec Greenspoon on Saturday February 28, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to KIN 421 at University of Miami taught by Dr. Perry in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 178 views. For similar materials see advanced systemic physiology in Physics 2 at University of Miami.

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Date Created: 02/28/15
KIN 421 224 amp 226 notes 02242015 22415 DOMS Theories 0 Muscle spasm theory Not true 0 Lactic acid theory Not true most sore 2448 hrs post exercise Lactic acid returns to baseline levels 4060 minutes post exercise Lactic acid increases most with concentric exercise Connective tissue 0 Endomysium perymysium epimysium OHP and OHL markers in urine post exercise 0 Also used when synthesizing connective tissue so dif cult to tell if high levels are from breakdown or buildup Muscle damage theory Eccentric contraction o More ef cient so less motor units are recruited for same workload More forceunit area more damage Tensile force a Ability to resist being torn apart a Greater during eccentric exercise 0 Less fatigue but more soreness compared to concentric Spike in creatine kinase indicates fatigue Creatine kinase CK MM skeletal muscle CK MB cardiac muscle 0 Look for in blood following heart attack 0 CK BB brain Muscle soreness CT connective tissue 0 In ammation that accompanies damage to both tissues In ammation theory encompasses muscle and connective tissue damage OHP from breakdown of connective tissue 0 Muscle cell damage blood will seep in 0 Increase in monocytes and neutrophils o Cytokines are signaling proteins Secreted by muscle fat cells immune cells endothelial cells Chemokines are a form of cytokine o Attracts chemicals 0 Increase prostaglandins Lysosomes clean upengulf bacteria in the muscle cell 0 Stored in golgi apparatus 0 Released by cytokines and mast cells Kinnins and bradykinins 0 Increase NO prostacyclin and vasodilation Cause swelling 0 Increase neural growth factors and in ammation Increase in aches and pains Delayed response 0 Macrophages produce prostaglandins Increase sensitization to pain type 3 and 4 nociceptors Also secrete cytokines and growth factors Pain killers inhibit repair if the damaged area Macrophages cause more damage than needed overkill Healing phase Calcium disruption see slide 0 Increases proteases Destroy proteins via proteolysis breaks peptide bonds 0 More protein and membrane breakdown o Arachidonic acid converted to endoperoxides Do clean up and cause damage breakdown cellular subs End up forming prostaglandins via in ammation 0 Cyclooxygenase enzymes Blocking these enzymes prevents conversion of arachidonic acid to endoperoxides n Less prostaglandins Tylenol effective for reducing brain prostaglandins o CANP Calpain from calmodulin and papain from papaya n Breaks down myo brillar elements 0 Chemo attractants increase macrophageneutrophil attraction 0 Some of the liberated calcium makes its way to troponin C increasing low energy rigor contractions Muscle damage Proteolysis Lysosomes o Betaglucaronidase indicates intense lysosome activity extensive damage DOMS order of damage see slide Women have reduced DOMS see slide 0 Due to estrogen o Keeps membranes resilient and stable Myeloperoxides Less damage from a given eccentric load Glycogen and muscle damage Glycogen depletion with DOMS Deplete more glycogen with concentric exercise 0 Resynthesizing glycogen from eccentric exercise takes much longer 22615 Reduce radius by 16 provides a 50 increase in resistance to ow Varies inversely to the 321 power of the reduced radius Treatment for DOMS Cryotherapy ice 0 Reduce swelling 0 Reduced vascular permeability Stretching 0 Stress relaxation 0 Increase length of muscle tendon unit 0 Damage occurs at critical stretch Injuries occur at musculotendenous junction Z line to Z line is tighter 0 When to stretch Before would be the best a By increasing length and elasticity damage from stretching is prevented a Stretching done prior to eccentric exercise reduced severity of DOMS a Five 60s stretches needed according to research 0 Ultrasound 0 Heat therapy Hyperbaric oxygen treatment chamber during DOMS o Eccentric strength was greater no signi cant differences in soreness Compression splint postexercise during DOMS o Immobilization Massage postexercise during DOMS 0 Increased blood ow more oxygen nutrients etc More active you are prior to eccentric exercise more likely to decrease DOMS o Endorphins are numbingmake u feel good 0 Type 1 and 2 sensory bers Muscle spindles golgi tendon organs Interfere with type 3 and 4 nociceptors n Reducing pain 0 Regular exercise strengthens muscle membrane reducing likelihood of DOMSinjury Training speci c to the activity will reduce likelihoodseverity of DOMS 0 Measured using CK Pain scale Prostaglandins Cytokines 1 bout of eccentric exercise performed up to 6 weeks in advance reduces DOMS of current eccentric exercise 0 after 9 weeks bene t is gone Should not resistance train the same muscle groups every day 0 Will result in decreased force the following day Drugs for DOMS Eicosanoids o Phospolipase A2 signals cleaving of phospholipid membrane 0 Endoperoxides become prostaglandins Metabolites of arachidonic acid see slide Bene ts of prostaglandins Smoothes stomach ining Blocking prostaglandins will reduce bene ts of prostaglandins 0 Could delay healing process 0 Renal blood ow vasodilation Cox3 inhibitors is not antiin ammatory o Inhibits brain prostaglandins Good for reducing fever makes you feel good Flow chart 0 Drugs inhibit the effects in the box causing side effects Mech of action of COX1 and COX2 inhibitors 0 Aspirin works differently works directly on the enzyme Only work on COX1 causes upset stomach Ibuprofen causes delay in healing more antiin ammatory activity More COX2 more CVD risk 0 Could be dangerous in young people when injured clotting from egs could travel up to the lungsheart Nonselective work both sides Dual action drugs 0 Block eukotrienes and prostaglandins


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