Part III of the course: Social Facts and Social ties Moving from culture to society. What is social? Emile Durkheim and the study of society
Part III of the course: Social Facts and Social ties Moving from culture to society. What is social? Emile Durkheim and the study of society ANTH 1002
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Estefania Notetaker on Saturday February 28, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH 1002 at George Washington University taught by Sarah Wagner in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 337 views. For similar materials see Introductions to Sociocultural Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 02/28/15
II Part III of the course Social Facts and Social ties Moving from culture to society What is social Emile Durkheim and the study of society February 25 2015 Founding discipline of sociology a Emile Durkheim 9 18581917 i Born in Loraine to a strong Jewish family with a long line of rabbis He moves away from this tradition and moves into the intellectual family Coming from a religious background religion remains a question for him ii Incredibly in uential not only as the founder of sociology but in sociocultural anthropology b Established sociology 9 No existing discipline that focus on the society and the social i Two fields on edge of sociology 9 1 Philosophy the pursuit of nature of knowledge reality existence 2 Psychology study the way the mind works ii These two were not addressing the social they talk about existence and the minds 9 Big gap is the social iii Durkheim want to fill the gap 9 created sociology 1 To establish a new field of study need to consider the Subject amp Method of study epistemological questions iv The pursuit of the social has to become institutionalized and there has to a professional exchange of ideas 9 1 Published the rules of sociological methods in 1895 and founded the first French social scientific journal Lanne Socilogique in 1898 2 Continued by his nephew c Part of French positivist tradition which follows the French enlightenment i He is a positivist The scientific approach to the social 1 The scientific method is the best method to measure social 2 Durkheim despised Herbert Spencer 9 similar epistemologies but they come to di erent conclusion 3 Positivist traditional social sciences were the extension of natural sciences ii Setting out to establish new field he requires that the method of study would include rationality empirical evidence and causality The questions of modernity a Writing in late 19th early 20th century what is happening at this time i Industrialization ii Urbanization mass mobility of people iii Capitalism modes of production iv Imperialism the British V Nationalism ideas of national identity vi Wane of the in uence of the catholic church b Question of modernity 9 Tackling the questions of modernity and fragmentation 9 transition to modernity characterized by a fragmentation c Two traditions of thinkers responding to modernity i French 1 Emile Durkheim 2 Positivist tradition out of the enlightenment sciencerational 3 Emphasis a Structures and institutions collective things 4 Question How do societies hold together Cohesion a In the face of change how do societies stay together social fact b Waning of the Catholic Church 9 Religion no longer doing social glue then what becomes the means of holding society together c He focuses on religion the sacred and the profane ii German 1 Karl Marx Max Weber 2 Romanticism literary artistic tradition heart spirit 3 Emphasis a Agency and individual con ict act and change 4 Question How do societies change d Agreement 9 society is changing and fragmenting their question on the how difference III The Rules of Sociological Method a Similar to EB Tyler s introduction in What is a Social factquot Durkheim is setting out to i Object of study sociology as separate from psychology and philosophy ii Method of study 1 Defined society through the social fact 9 2 Pg 1 other natural sciences don t cover society 3 Pg 3 Here then is a category of facts with very distinctive characteristics it consist of way of acting feelingought to be appliesquot a quotRepresentationquot means ideas for Durkheim b The study is social He explains its nature 9 IV Glossary a Social Fact i Not biological ii Not psychological iii Not philosophical What constitutes a social fact a Two traits i External to the individual ii Its coercive to it b Collective representation 9 they come out of society Pg 4 5 quotThus the great movementwill turn against him we are then victimsfrom without a Enthusiasms of the crowd in a soccer game 9 it is not individual but it is social Pg 10 we this arrive at the point where we can formulate and delimit in a premise was the domain tends to violate it Pg 13 our definition will then a include the whole relevant range of facts if we say a social fact is every way of acting fixed or not capable of exercisingits individual manifestationsquot
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