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Islam Art & Architecture - Week 4 Notes

by: Johnathan Granville

Islam Art & Architecture - Week 4 Notes ART 504-01

Marketplace > San Francisco State University > Art > ART 504-01 > Islam Art Architecture Week 4 Notes
Johnathan Granville
GPA 3.66
The Art and Architecture of Islam
Santhi Kavuri-Bauer

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About this Document

Notes for week 4 of the class (February 17-19th). It covers Prophet's Mosque and early mosques of the Umayyad Caliphate (Mosque of Al-Walid I, Al-Aqsa, and Great Mosque of Damascus).
The Art and Architecture of Islam
Santhi Kavuri-Bauer
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Johnathan Granville on Saturday February 28, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ART 504-01 at San Francisco State University taught by Santhi Kavuri-Bauer in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 72 views. For similar materials see The Art and Architecture of Islam in Art at San Francisco State University.


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Date Created: 02/28/15
Nationstate only started to take its form from 17th century Before that people identify themselves with religion the closer or more powerful empire etc With this new change in how people identify themselves now with visible nationstate division their relationship with the Rock also changed Jews glad that there s something there instead ofjust rubble Evangelical Christians needed some sort of cleansing They believed the second coming of Jesus would take place at the gate of the Jewish temple surrounding the Rock Early Christians had a very tense relationship with it EAR LY MOSQUES Another way the international Muslim community associate with each other Built by people with power caliphs emperors etc Humble shelter square area marked by line in sand with one side facing Mecca Islamic liturgical practices do not need special sites to take place Minimalism due to nomadic origins of the Arabs No direct formal relationship with its function anything can be a mosque Sacred and profane space is not distinguished Ritual of selfablutions is to purify the body not an act to mark crossing into sacred space Sacred and secular are welded together more like a forum or agora than church Khutbah messages of exhortation instructions politics news etc delivered by a kha b The only thing allowed in the mosque at the time was the Qur39an PROPHET S MOSQUE 31 X I39le r 39 A n l 1 Jul V g 1quot J l 39Hgt v39 g V s grit1113 I 3 quotTl 1 1 aquot quot k I to 39 za c x qfr 3 5 1 c u 3 it gt First mosque ever formally built Built soon after the hijra in 622 Focal point of new Islamic community Enclosing walls Facing the qibla was the zulla Qibla wallfirst faced Jerusalem but then Mecca Minbar a raised platform of 3 steps from which the Prophet addressed his community Hadi simplicity and austerity are the ethos and how people were expected to behave II Parts of the Mosque Haram the covered area where the qibla wall would be Sahn the courtyard indicating that it s a community gathering space Riwaqs surrounds the courtyard and provides shade opens up to other parts of the mosque such as the school gardens Often serves as transition space between indoor and outdoor Giba wall qibla is Arabic for direction which is fixed towards Mecca Mihrab the niche that is held in the qibla wall Dikka the raised platform from which the Qur an is recited and prayers are intoned Kursi holder of the Qur an Maqsura corneredoff space reserved for royalty only Minaret visual indicator within a cityscape to signify Muslim gathering added Was built at first by the Roman for a different purpose but was then adapted after Portal the arched entrance Masjid mosque Jami Masjid congregational mosque Storefront mosque utilises alreadymade space or building for mosque Usually none of the walls faces Mecca but inside one can put tape to indicate prayer direction facing Mecca EAR LY mosouas or UMAWADS The first time in Islamic history that mosques were more than utilitarian Meant to inspire the Islamic world Monumental and removed from Muhammad s humble beginning Expensive speedy and sites strategically chosen AlWalid ibn son of abd alMalik 705715 A mosque was needed here because it is a pilgrimage site Dome on top of Mihrab first to implement Inside quartered marble coloured glass Qur anic writing in multiple registers there are plasters for decoration Kama vinelike decoration at the top Hypostyle borrowed from the Dome of the Rock Introduced Imperial style quotILL Imperial Style Ablutions area outside gate o Axial nave Dome over mihrab o Concave mihrab o Decoration vine frieze karna marble dado mosaics epigraphic band polychrome marble gilded marble and gold script etc ALAqm Entire outside serve as courtyard o Imperial style with dome right on top of Mihrab as taken from AlWalid l s mosque Parts of the mosque is going to be accentuated in different ways thus learning about the meaning of each part will help us understand the intention of the builders Architecture is used to differentiate themselves o New concerns that Muhammad didn t have legitimacy and politics Started off as a Hellenistic temple dedicated to the Greek god of Jupiter but was then destroyed and repurposed into a Christian holy site basilica dedicated to John the Baptist The only part that is still original are the walls around everything else was taken down or repurposed Original dome was of the same dimension as that of Dome of the Rock Combining mosque structure with that of palaces hoping to use it as a properitising space to encourage people to convert to Islam Double arcade for added height Slender pillars on pedestal for added height Same style and artisans as with Dome of the Rock II T he Eagle Dome The octagonal cupola was rebuilt after the fire of 1893 Supported on pendentives the cupola dominates the short central nave which divides the oblong space of the prayer hall into two equal parts The idea for double columns did not come from churches but Byzantine palaces The drawings on the walls show buildings which is different from Dome of the Rock It is similar to the Roman style painting of architecture Why are they depicting cityscape It is believed that it is forbidden to depict images of mortal life or manmade things because it distracts people from God 9 Al Waid s response would be that it is not depicting mortal life but that in paradise It is meant to suggest to people who haven t converted what God s promise of life after death would be like t Another hypothesis is to depict political strength The structure itself serve multiple purposes Practicality a place for the community to gather and pray Religious expansion attracting new people for conversion by making the temple huge extravagant made with expensive materials Muhammad never wanted this at first


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