Introduction to Psychology Chapter 3 Notes
Introduction to Psychology Chapter 3 Notes PSY0010
Popular in Introduction to Psychology
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Psychlogy
This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brittany Blades on Saturday February 28, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY0010 at University of Pittsburgh taught by Dr. Lausberg in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Pittsburgh.
Reviews for Introduction to Psychology Chapter 3 Notes
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 02/28/15
Introduction to Psychology Chapter 6 Memory Memory an active system that receives information from the senses puts information into a usable form organizes it as it stores it away and retrieves the information from storage Three Processes of Memory 1 Putting it in Encoding a Encoding Get sensory information sight sound etc into a form that the brain can use b The set of mental operations that people perform on sensory information to convert that information into a form that is usable in the brain39s storage system 2 Keeping it in Storage a Storage process that holds on to the information for some period of time 3 Getting it out Retrieval a Getting the information they know they have out of storage Models of Memory Informationprocessing model focuses on the way information is handled or processed through three different systems of memory 0 Includes processes of encoding storage and retrieval Parallel distributed processing PDP model model of memory in which memory processes are proposed to take place at the same time over a large network of neural connections Levelsofprocessing model model of memory that assumes information that is more quotdeeply processedquot or processed according to its meaning rather than just the sound or physical characteristics of the word or words will be remembered more ef ciently and for a longer period of time InformationProcessing Model Three Memory Systems 1 Sensory Memory a First stage of memory point at which information enters the nervous system through the sensory systems b Two types of sensory memory i Iconic sensory memory visual sensory memory 1 Capacity of iconic memory everything that can be seen at one time 2 Duration of iconic memory information that just entered iconic memory will be pushed out very quickly by new information process called masking 3 Function of iconic memory helps the visual system to view surroundings as continuous and stable in spite of the saccadic movements ii Echoic sensory memory brief memory of something a person has heard 1 Capacity limited to what can be heard at any one moment 2 Useful when a person wants to have meaningful conversations with others 2 ShortTerm Memory the memory system in which information is held for brief periods of time while being used a Selective Attention How Information Enters i Selective attention ability to focus on only one stimulus from among all sensory input b Working Memory an active system that processes the information present in shortterm memory i Consists of three interrelated systems 1 A central executive D controls and coordinates the other two systems 2 The quotsketchpadquot 3 The quotrecorderquot 3 LongTerm Memory system which all the information is placed to be kept more permanently a Elaborative rehearsal way of transferring information from Shortterm memory to long term memory by making the information meaningful in some way Types of LongTerm Information Nondeclarative implicit LTM 0 Includes memory for skills procedures habits and conditioned responses Memories are not conscious but implied to exist because they affect conscious behavior 0 Anterograde amnesia Caused by damage to the hippocampal area of the brain New longterm declarative memories cannot form Declarative explicit LTM 0 Contains information that is conscious and known 0 Sematic memory general knowledge that anyone has the ability to 39 Lungterm memory heir a Esslsrsiti ss Fm umi msmsrs Esplisit lmsmisrs39i Implicit W qum r lsitsiar skills habits Iilassiialljgir sonditunsd rsflssss Episodic mama r Essarnantls mammal Events sspsrisnssd Facts en sral Imuasl 4 L gem a 7ypes of longterm memories Semantic Network Model assumes that information is stored in the brain in a connected fashion with concepts that are related to each other stored physically closer to each other than concepts that are not highly related Flilaas skin 1 in an I39HEII39EE around u Equals 1r iiianimalquot up Ermthm r is Has wing Hag fans a if quot Ea Fl lily Ear warm H r y quot Elirti h ilasfcathms Fish quotF liariugills 1 iii HiIi 9 Has Iong thin Ii 5 I is inl A Q a l 39 tan Sing 15m Eanizii te j Ilsadime aquot if 1 s quot aquot mater quot es la yellow minim aw gm1 m Eli mrli It 5 dangerous Ealrrmr l i Swirn upstream ti lzw eggs example of a semantic network Retrieval of LongTerm Memories Retrieval Cues stimulus for remembering Encoding speci city context effects on memory retrieval 0 Encoding specificity tendency for memory of any kind of information to be improved if retrieval conditions are similar to the conditions under which the information was encoded Best to take a test in the room you learned the material in Encoding speci city statedependent learning 0 Statedependent earning memories formed during a particular physiological or psychological state will be easier to remember while in a similar state For example when ghting with someone it39s easier to remember the bad things they did than the good things Recall and Recognition Recall memories are retrieved with few or no external cues o The serial position effect reca often subject to a kind of quotprejudicequot of memory retrieval in which information at the beginning primary effect an tends to l Primacy effect quotit lFithlif39i39i IT39gfquot effort E Elli E h E am e if 3 2 2E LI i I I H u i n 2 all 5 E 117 1 14 Faitiun in list Recognition involves looking at or hearing information and matching it to what is already in memory 0 Tends to be very accurate for images especially human faces Automatic Encoding Flashbulb memories Automatic encoding tendency of certain kinds of information to enter long term memory with little or no effortful encoding 0 People unconsciously notice and seem able to remember a lot of things Flashbulb memories type of automatic encoding that occurs because an unexpected event has strong emotional associations for the person remembering it 0 Events can often seem vivid and detailed How Reliable Are Memories Memories are revised edited and altered on an almost continuous basis Constructive Processing of Memories As new memories are created and more time passes the more likely memories are to be changed or altered in some way Constructive processing memories are literally quotbuiltquot or reconstructed from the information stored away during encoding 0 Each time a memory is retrieved it may be altered or revised in some way to include or exclude details Hindsight bias tendency of people to falsely believe that they would have accurately predicted an outcome without having been told about it in advance Memory Retrieval Problems Misinformation effect 0 False memories that are created by a person being exposed to information after the event 0 Misleading information can become part of the actual memory affecting accuracy Forgetting Why Do We Forget Ebbinghaus and the Forgetting Curve Hermann Ebbinghaus was one of the rst researchers to study forgetting Curve of forgetting 0 Graph that clearly shows that forgetting happens quickly within the rst hour after learning the lists and then tapers off quickly 0 Forgetting is greatest just after learning Distributed practice 0 Spacing out one s study sessions 0 Produces better retrieval of information studied Encoding Failure failure to process information into memory Memory Trace Decay Theory Memory trace some physical change in the brain perhaps a neuron or in the activity between neurons which occurs when a memory is formed Decay disappearing o Traces may decay over time if not used Interference Theory Proactive Interference Retroactive Interference Reasons for Forgetting Reason Description Encoding Failure The information is not attended to and fails to be encoded Decay or Disuse Information that is not accessed decays from the storage system over time Proactive Interference Older information already in memory interferes with the learning of newer information Retroactive Interference Newer information interferes with the retrieval of older information Neuroscience of Memory Neural Activity Structure and Proteins in Memory Formation Memory is changes in the number of receptor sites changes in the sensitivity of the synapse through repeated stimulation and changes in the dendrites and speci cally in the proteins within the neurons Protein in mammals responsible for the production of new nervoussystem proteins known as 4EBP2 When Memory Fails Organic Amnesia Retrograde Amnesia 0 Loss of memory from the point of injury backwards o The consolidation process gets disrupted and loses everything that was not already nearly quotfinishedquot Anterograde Amnesia o Often caused by concussions 0 Loss of memory from the point of injury or illness forward 0 Dif culty remembering anything new 0 Often seen in dementia Alzheimer39s Disease 0 Most common type of dementia found in adults and the elderly 0 Memory loss may be mild at rst but becomes more severe over time Infantile Amnesia o lnvolves memory from the rst few years of life 0 Early memories tend to be implicit and dif cult to bring to consciousness
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'