Attitudes & Persuasion Class Notes Continued
Attitudes & Persuasion Class Notes Continued PSYC2012
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emily Lowe on Sunday March 1, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC2012 at George Washington University taught by Dr. Duval in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 156 views.
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Date Created: 03/01/15
Class Notes Social Psychology Critical Thinking Assessment 2 Review Does the last of something make it a more positive experience There were two levels of the IV knowing that the 5th chocolate was the last one and not knowing that the 5th chocolate was the last one Type of Study True Experiment Randomly assigned to each level of the IV Could manipulate the IV Operational IV saying next chocolate or saying last chocolate Conceptual IV the participant knowing or not knowing it was their last chocolate Operational DV liking ratings of the chocolates Conceptual DV asking the participant to rate their liking of the chocolate on a scale Random assignment increased internal validity Study had high external validity How did the researchers ensure participants heard the saying next or last Gave questionnaire at the end to see if they knew The hypothesis is supported How could internal validity have been compromised Taken out random assignment Having the same order of chocolates every time instead of it being a random order Attitudes amp Persuasion Continued Attitude Measurement SelfReport most common is paper and pencil measures Just ask people their attitudes Pros fairly objective because you39re asking them easy cheap Cons might just write what they think is the sought out answer or the best answer will people be honest are people even aware of their attitude Such as prejudice you know you are not supposed to be prejudice so some people may not actually answer truthfully Physiological looks for increases in the sympathetic nervous system heart rate blood pressure known as arousal Pros people cannot really control their physiological responses more objective measure of how intense the reaction is Cons don t know whether the response is indicating a positive or negative response Always want to ask some basic questions first to get them used to it Unobtrusive measure attitudes by using methodology that leaves participants unaware that their attitudes were even being investigated Pros very objective nice to do if it is possible Cons more for a group vs an individual Least common challenging to do Does not require debriefing Trait vs State State temporary condition influenced by the situation Example A teacher tells a student thank you for trying your best even though most people do much better than this but thank you for trying The teacher just temporarin adjusted the student s selfesteem By doing this you would allow the experiment to become a true experiment because you have adjusted a trait temporarin Trait stable dispositional characteristic a part of who we are Individual Difference Variable aspects of people s personalities that make them different from other people These are quasiexperimental variables race gender age personality characteristics leadership potential selfesteem How attitudes and behaviors affect each other Behavior affects attitude 1 Bem SelfPerception Theory 2 Dissonance Theory dissonance is the unpleasant state that arises when we have two attitudes or an attitude and behavior that are inconsistent Must have freely chosen to engage in the behavior Important that there is not significant external justification Reducing Dissonance Direct Reduction 1 Change attitude or behavior 2 Acquire information that supports our attitude 3 Trivialize inconsistency Example Decide that you are going to eat healthier because it is not good for you change behavior Then you find yourself eating potato chips but justify this by saying there is no trans fat in these chips info that supports attitude Then you decide well you know what life is too short to not eat unhealthy trivialize inconsistency Indirect Reduction 1 Engage in selfaffirmation Making self feel better about something by remembering all the good things about yourself that are unrelated to the behaviorattitude Why did people who fought in the Vietnam War who did not support the war not change their behavior Because they did not choose freely to fight in the war they were drafted WHEN do attitudes affect behavior Aggregation an attitude predicts a general class of behaviors much better than any individual behavior Experience attitudes based on experience are better predictors of behavior When you have a direct experience with an attitude object your behavior is more predictable Theory of Planned Behavior when perceived behavioral control and subjective norms match attitude SelfMonitors low selfmonitors act according to their attitudes more than high selfmonitors When do attitudes affect behavior When you are a low selfmonitoring High selfmonitor aware of impressions they make flexible in different situations engage in self presentation more Change behavior based on different situations When trying to sell a car to a little old lady you are going to be very polite and helpful yes ma am no ma amquot BUT when trying to sell a car to a hip hop guy you are going to be like yo man lets go check out these wheels over here More likely to change behavior in all situations Low selfmonitor more consistent with their attitudes and internal norms across situations Lack abilitymotivation to engage in selfpresentation More likely to only be good at changing behavior in wellunderstood situations like a funeral vs a party they would be able to alter behavior for each of these events High SelfAwareness directing attention inward toward oneself as opposed to outward toward the environment Directly attention about yourself values beliefs Can be a trait and a state State SA temporarily increased ex camera or mirror or having an audience Can temporarily make you direct attention inward about yourself Even if you are not normally like this Trait SA can be an individual difference variable such that people naturally differ on how much they are selfaware HOW attitudes affect behavior Accessibility highly accessible attitudes have stronger effect on heavier Attitude Accessibility Model by Fazio How does an attitude get more accessible With recent or frequent expression just as with schemas Attitudes of low selfmonitors tend to be very accessible so they use them all the time It is helpful to know HOW an attitude was formed when trying to change it AKA when is persuasion successful If you form an attitude through cognitive routes you should try to change it with reason If you form an attitude through affective routes you should try to change it with emotions Persuasion Traditional Approach Hovland Yale Group AKA Traditional Approach Who says What to Whom The first real set of research on persuasion Who Communicator Likable vs unlikable attractive vs unattractive professional vs unprofessional What Communication message Fluffy message vs serious message Whom Audience whose attitude is targeted Female vs male audience good mood vs bad mood audience
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