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Chapter 8

by: Helen Shymanski

Chapter 8 PSY-P 304

Helen Shymanski
GPA 3.7
Social Psychology

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Chapter 8 when he was gone if you missed classed!
Social Psychology
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Helen Shymanski on Sunday March 1, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY-P 304 at Indiana University taught by Rydell in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 36 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Psychlogy at Indiana University.


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Date Created: 03/01/15
Chapter 8 Conformity Conformity 1 A change in one39s behavior due to the real or imagined in uence of other people 2 Types of Acceptance a Private acceptance believe that what others are doing or saying is right i Conforming to other people39s behavior out of a genuine belief that what they are doing or saying is right b Public Acceptance conforming publicly but not believing in what we are doing or saying i Public Compliance Conforming to other people39s behavior publicly without necessarily believing in what the other people are doing or saying 3 Social Norms implicit or explicit rules a group has about acceptable behaviors values or beliefs of its members a Normative Social In uence conform to be liked b Informational Social In uence conform for informational value i The in uence of other people that leads us to conform because we see them as a source of information to guide our behavior we conform because we believe that others39 interpretation of an ambiguous situation is more correct than ours and will help us choose an appropriate course of action 4 Motivation a Informational Social In uence the need to know what the quotrightquot informational social in uence is occurs when people do not know what the correct thing to do or say is They look to the behavior of others as an important and needed source of information and they use it to choose appropriate courses of action for themselves Informational social in uence usually results in private acceptance in which people genuinely believe in what other people are doing or saying 5 Accuracy 1 When accuracy is needed people usually will conform to others through informational social in uence increases 2 People are more likely to resist normative social in uence and go against the group giving the right answer only when it is more important to be accurate 6 Back ring a Using other people as a guide can lead to back ring in situations where the quotleadersquot do not understand what is going on or are wrong in their interpretation Contagion occurs when emotions and behaviors spread rapidly throughout a group b Contagion the rapid spread of emotions or behaviors through a crowd c Mass Psychogenic Illness the occurrence in a group of people of similar physical symptoms with no known physical cause Autokinetic Effect 1 2 4 People provide us with information on how to act appropriately in a given situation Use a visual illusion called the autokinetic effect to look at conformity ambiguous a 3 Phases i Make judgments alone ii Make judgments with 2 other people answer out loud iii Makejudgments alone b Conformity lasted for over 1 year in this particular study People estimated how far a point of light appeared to move in a dark room When they saw the light be themselves their estimates varied widely When they were brought together in groups and heard other people announce their estimates people conformed to the group39s estimate of how much the light moved adjusting their private beliefs based on the information other group members provided Asch line Study is another example a Solomon Asch found that people would conform most of the time to the obvious wrong answer if the group said the answer was correct Normative Social In uence 1 P PP N 6 Occurs when we change our behavior to match that of others because we want to remain a member of the group particularly a member in good standing and continues to gain the advantages of group membership We conform to the group39s social norms implicit or explicit rules for acceptable behaviors values and attitudes Normative social in uence usually results in public compliance but not private acceptance of other people39s ideas and behaviors Conform to be liked or accepted by them Leads to public acceptance but usually not private acceptance The loneliness of not following normative social in uence Eating disorders a Bulimia i Cycle of binging and purging ii Eat a lot and then use diet laxatives or vomiting Crandall 1988 quotSororityquot Oquot c Examined eating disorders in two different sororities with different norms i Sorority 1 The more one binged the more popular one was ii Sorority 2 Binge the right amount not too much but not too frequently d What happened to women joining each sorority e Starts out as informational social in uencequothow to maintain a gure in coHegequot f Then normative in uences took over as women conformed to the patterns of their friends Using Social In uence to Promote Bene cial Behaviors a lnjunctive Norms Perceptions of what others approve or disapprove of i Don39t want to be alone b C ii IN People s perceptions of what behaviors are approved or disapproved of by others Descriptive Norms How they actually act regardless of whether others approve or not i Inform what is effective or adaptive ii DN People s perceptions of how people actually behave in given situations regardless of whether the behavior is approved or disapproved of by others Most people think others want them to recycle but most people don39t recycle 7 Social Impact Theory Conformity Occurs a b Strength how important is the group Immediacy how close do you feel to the group when you decide to conform Number how many people are in the group The magic of 3 Specifies when normative social in uence almost likely to occur by referring to the strength immediacy and size of the group We are more likely to conform when the group is one we care about when the group members are unanimous in their thoughts and behaviors when the group has three or more members and when we are members of collectivist cultures Past conformity gives people idiosyncrasy credits allowing them to deviate from the group without serious consequences Social Impact Theory The idea that conforming to social in uence depends on the group39s importance its immediacy and the number of people in the group Idiosyncrasy Credits The tolerance a person earns over time by conforming to group norms if enough idiosyncrasy credits are earned the person can on occasion behave de antly without retribution from the group 8 Minority In uence a b c d Minority group members can in uence the behaviors of the majority Consistency is key i Express the same view over time ii Minority must agree Minority in uence rarely happens through normative means Minority introduces new unexpected information group examines issues more carefully view has merit adopt all or some of view 9 Minority In uence the case where a minority of group members in uences the behavior or beliefs of the majority 10Milgram s Obedience Experiments a b 0 Participants believed they were in a study on punishment and learning Participants were assigned the role of teacher and their partner actor was the quotlearnerquot Teacher punished the learner for incorrect response in a paired associates task Each incorrect answer led to shockto lethal dosage 625 gave the full 450 volt very dangerous shock f 80 people gave shocks after learner said he had heart condition g College students adults and psychiatrists predicted that 1 would comply h This experiment was later questioned for its ethics but is fundamental in its psychological ndings Obedience 1 Normative and informational social in uence can39t fully explain massive obedience a lnitial only b NSI others liking you probably can39t explain total obedience c ISI the information from the experimenter becomes less valuable and is obviously wrong 2 Conforming to the wrong norm a Initially we just obey because it is our role and the initial requests are not aversive i Follow a reasonable norm quotobey expertsquot b Eventually the norm becomes inappropriate i Asking you to possibly kill someone Milgram c Focused on the obey expert norm i Didn39t have time to think multitasking 1 Recording answer reading words giving shocks d SelfJusti cation i Increased in very small increments ii SelfJusti cation have to rationalize your behavior each time you increase the shock makes you more likely to continue 3 Loss of Personal Responsibility The idea that you are just following orders The decision to stop is not yours but the experimenters External attributions for your behaviordetach lf participants were particularly hesitant the experiments said that he would be responsible if anything happened e If you look at prison guards who conduct executions they deny all personal responsibility compared to other guards apem


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