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Biology 106

by: Emma Silverman

Biology 106 Chemistry 105

Emma Silverman
GPA 4.0
Chem 105: Principles of Chemistry

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Chem 105: Principles of Chemistry
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This 15 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emma Silverman on Sunday March 1, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Chemistry 105 at Washington State University taught by Finnegan in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 240 views. For similar materials see Chem 105: Principles of Chemistry in Chemistry at Washington State University.


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Date Created: 03/01/15
22315 Concept 392 Plant hormones help coordinate growth development and responses to stimuli Hormones are chemical signals that coordinate different parts of an organism Tropisms are often caused by hormones Auxin and cell wall expansion Figure 395 Cell Elongation Cytokinins Stimulate cell division and differentiation Apical dominance terminal bud s ability to suppress development of axillary buds Ifthe terminal bud is removed plants become bushier Gibberellins Stem elongation Fruit Growth Gibberellins Stem elongation Fruit Growth Germination After water is imbibed release of gibberellins from the embryo signals seeds to germinate Gibberellins and Germination Figure 3911 After water is imbibed release of gibberellins from the embryo signals seeds to germinate Seed germination may also be triggered by temperature light availability light quality Brassinosteroids They induce cell elongation and division in plants Abscisic Acid Two of the many effects of abscisic acid ABA Seed dormancy High levels of ABA inhibit seed germination It s the breakdown loss of ABA that germinates seeds Drought tolerance ABA accumulates in leaves during drought and causes stomata closure Ethylene a gas volatile Released through leaves or ripening fruits If it s being chewed on it can be released create a signal transduction and increase the plants ability to respond to that stress Plants produce ethylene in response to stresses Also produced during fruit ripening and programmed cell death senescence go through maturity and go through programmed cell death Plant hormones chemical signals Auxin cell wall expansions Cytokinins cell division and differentiation Gibberellins stem elongation fruit growth germination Brassinosteroids cell elongation and division Abscisic acid seed dormancy amp stomatal Ethylene fruit ripening and senescence THlNKPAlRSHARE In terms of the signaltransduction pathway how might a hormone response be disrupted in a plant Perception signaling molecule itself response itself might be broken inhibition Concept 393 Responses to light are critical for plant success Light responses are very important he studies this in his lab Effects of light on plant morphology structure of a plant how big how big the leaves are the orientation of the plant and which way it grows Called photomomhoaenesis light morphology influenced by light Drives photosynthesis and helps them sense their environment Not only the presence of light But also direction intensity and wavelength color a plant can detect differences in directionality of light intensity of light and the color of the light How much red vs how much blue How much long red vs short red An action spectrum graph how much blue vs green vs red light Depicts the relative response of a process to different wavelengths of light How much something is being driven by a specific wavelength of light color BlueLight Photoreceptors Various bluelight photoreceptors have many different processes they can control Control hypocotyl elongation gif of plants growing in the dark vs the light in the dark they still think they re in the soil so they continue elongating In the light leaves begin because they sense the light and stop elongating Stomatal opening makes sense because blue light drives photosynthesis These need to be coordinated Only enough photosynthesis as CO2 available Phototropism changing leaf angle as sun moves Tracking of the sunlight Ex sunflowers leaves will track sunlight iClicker Plants growing in a partially dark environment will grow toward light in a response called phototropism Which of the following statements is true regarding phototropism a FDR9939 It is caused by an electrical signal One chemical involved is ethylene Auxin causes a growth increase on one side of the stem Auxin causes a decrease in growth on the side of the stem exposed to light Removing the apical meristem enhances phototropism Phytochromes as Photoreceptors mostly red light Phytochromes respond to changes in red light Seed germination strongly influenced seasonally Germinate when light and other conditions are near optimal Death of a shading tree or plowing of field if you re a seed stuck to the bottom of a jungle there s not a lot of advantage to germinate If a big tree gets knocked down and the canopy is opened up that s going to change the light environment amount of red light Plants are using a lot of red light for photosynthesis so plants above other plants will block it Shade Avoidance if you are a small seedling growing under a large tree the lack of red light will cause seedling to grow in a different orientation until it gets more red light Can sense quality of light Time of day amp seasons Phytochromes as Photoreceptors mostly red light figure 3920 Seeing red Red light receptors sense lower nm vs farred light longer higher nm 400700 nm ish Variation across the entire spectrum Looking at the red section there is some subtle variation in the red light Long is higher nm Influences and drives the phytochrome mediated responses There is a balance needed It is driven by time of day time of season and by the shade and quality of light available Tree falls down increase in red light vs far red light Differences Wavelength ln purple and blue short wave length Typically have high energy Longer wavelength is red Longer slower waves Seedling at base of canopy canopy absorbs short red and blue light to drive photosynthesis This means that the light that gets down to the floor of the forest will have more far red light because it s not getting absorbed as much Photoperiodism and Responses to Seasons Seasonal events are critical to the life cycle of most plants linked to changes in day and year Light availability temperature They are trained in the plant based on the continual shifts of light availability Plants use photoperiod to detect the time of year photoperiodism Day length will affect the timing of seed germination bud formation flowering Concept 394 Plants respond to a wide variety of stimuli other than light Plants must adjust to a wide range of environmental circumstances through developmental and physiological mechanisms There are other things that plants respond to other than light temperature touch gravitational field Mechanical Stimuli Growth in response to touch ls called thiamotronism Occurs in vines and other climbing plants Gif vines wrapping around the solid structure When it touches it it begins to wrap itself around it Mechanical Stimuli Mimosa pudica Figure 3927ac Rapid leaf movements in response to mechanical stimulation Environmental Stresses Environmental stresses have a potentially adverse effect on a plant s Survival Growth Reproduction Abiotic non living versus biotic living Another important thing is pollination bees Reproduction is coordinated sometimes by other organism Other insects or animals Timing is important so there is coordination Concept 395 Plants respond to attacks by herbivores and pathogens Plants are base of food chain Attacked by wide range of plant eating herbivorous animals Also subject to infection by viruses bacteria and fungi 22515 Concept 395 Plants respond to attacks by herbivores and pathogens Plants are base of food chain Attacked by wide range of plant eating herbivorous animals Also subject to infection by viruses bacteria and fungi Defense against herbivores Some plants even recruit predatory animals that help defend against specific herbivores Defense against pathogens First line of defense is physical barriers epidermis Second line of defense attacks pathogen amp prevents it from spreading metabolic response producing defense compounds Degradation of proteins amp genetic information to minimize pathogen reproduction and access to nutrients Sometimes it works sometimes it doesn t Plants often use changes in day length photoperiod to trigger events such as dormancy and flowering It is logical that plants have evolved this mechanism because photoperiod changes A are more predictable than air temperature changes B alter the amount of nutrients available to the plant C are modified by soil temperature changes D are correlated with moisture availability Chapter 31 Concept 311 Fungi are heterotrophs that feed by absorption Concept 312 Fungi produce spores through sexual or asexual life cycles Concept 314 Fungi radiated into a diverse set of lineages Concept 315 Fungi plant key roles in nutrient cycling ecological interactions and human welfare Concept 311 Fungi are heterotrophsget nutrients from outside of their body that feed by absorption Heterotrophs and absorb nutrients from outside of their body Use enzymes to break complex molecules Ecological success respiration Break down glucose leads into the oxidative phosphorylation Decomposers Parasites Mutualists Receiving sugar from the plant Early colonizers of land probably as symbionts with plants movement of aquatic organisms to the land Lakes or oceans to dry land It is thought that the fungi was very important in this Body Structure Hyphal Structure Most are multicellular Cells divided by septa multiple cells associated Some have no cross wall Coenocytic Has multiple nuclei nucleus is used to keep information Having multiple allows for regional control of gene expression within a very large cell The morphology of multicellular fungi Enhances ability to absorb nutrients from the environment The hyphae either one or multiple stacked can create networks known as mycelium Chitin Only when there is sexual or asexual reproduction is there a fruiting body so there is offspring produced The mycelium is really what is making up the majority of the body of the fungi These are made up of different hyphae ThinkPairShare Provide an example of an analogous features between plants and fungi Not roots plants have roots but fungi don t Mycelium and root system are very similar Nutrient uptake Don t share common ancestor analogous structure Similar things being done but not actually related Concept 312 Fungi produce spores through sexual or asexual life cycles Fungi propagate themselves By producing vast numbers of spores either sexually or asexually can go through asexual production and create clones or can regenerate sexually where they actually have genetic information from two different individuals and creates a zygote General life cycle of fungi Figure 3151 Asexual Haploid 1 copy genetic info 1n Diploid 2 copies 2n Heterokaryotic We have mycelium that are growing primarily under the soil that creates a spore structure The spores will be identical because it is asexual reproduction Spores can then be taken up by wind or water and will germinate Sexual 2 mycelium Hyphae coming together and fusing plasmogamy The hyphae come together at the heterokaryotic stage but haven t actually fused together yet During this stage there is a process called karyogamy where the genetic information fuses together and produces the zygote Zygotes are diploid The zygote can then go through meiosis which will create a fruiting system spores which will then be germinated and the system starts again One way it might be shifting mutation Diploid phase follows karyogamy Shortlived 2n sporeproducing structures and 1n spores Different structures that produce spores are often one way in which we can differentiate between fungi Diploid structures that release haploid spores into the environment There are different ways depending on the fungi Asexual reproduction Faster way of reproducing iClicker When a mycelium infiltrates an unexploited source of organic matter what are most likely to appear within the food source soon thereafter A fungal fruiting body usually at the soil surface For reproduction and creating spores it needs to be above ground because the spores need to be dispersed B sporangia C fungal enzymes they are breaking down organic material And going out into the environment D increased oxygen levels photosynthesis drives oxygen levels E larger bacterial populations Concept 314 Fungi radiated into a diverse set of lineages Groups of fungi Fungal Phylum Chytridiomycota chytrids Flagellated spores Found in freshwater and terrestrial habitats They can be decomposers mutualists saprobic or parasitic Diverges early in fungal evolution Zoospores unique with flageIated spores Zygomycota zygote fungi Resistant zygosporangium as sexual stage Fast growing bread and fruit molds Asexual reproduction Named for their zygosporangia The site of karyogamy and then meiosis Aim their sporangia toward conditions associated with good food sources Piobolus aim their sporangia toward the light beneficial because the light drives photosynthesis In cow pies there is grass which needs light too and grows where there is light 22715 Not on test Chapter 25 Chapter 38 Chapter 56 Go through lab material There will be questions based on the plant module What are fungi how do they function Glomeromycota arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi Arbuscular mycorrhizae formed with plants arbuscular mycorrhizae 160 species Really organisms that develop symbiotic and mutualist relationship Fungal root Symbiotic relationship between the plant and fungal system Having the mycelium growing out into the soil connected to the roots means more surface area and more exposure to nutrients Hypha mycelium network increases active root surface for nutrient acquisition up to 700 times more Mycorrhizae Are mutually beneficial relationships between fungi and plant roots Mycorrhizae fungus roots Delivers minerals and receives organic nutrients photosynthates recieving sugars Not heterotrophs consuming sugars from the plant Energy is flowing in and the sugars are going into the fugal system to help the plant grow Ectomycorrhiza fungi Grow in extracellular spaces of roots Interacts differently than endomycorrhizal fungi Fungi hyphae are actually growing into the root system and grow into the extracellular space There is air space between cells Endomycorrhizal fungi Hyphae go through cell wall to plasma membrane Endo in growing through the cell wall Hyphae are penetrating the cell wall They wrap themselves around the plasma membrane Why is there this relationship It is easier to pass information because of the intimate contact between the hyphae and plasma membrane This organic material is so much easier to transport Ascomycota ascomycetes or sac fungi DEFINING FEATURE Sexual spores ascospores borne internally in sacs called asci vast numbers of asexual spores conidia produced Live in marine freshwater and terrestrial habitats found in most environments Produce saclike asci contained in fruiting bodies called ascocarps DEFINING FEATURE OF ASCOMYCETES The sac like structures release spores Commonly called sac fungi ThinkPairShare What are some potential implications if there were no decomposers If there were no fungi or bacteria One of the roles breaking down complex organic material This is not readily available to most systems until its broken down Then it can be consumed and the energy can go back into the system fthere were no decomposers in say fall the trees lose their leaves They are broken down lfthey aren t it would just pile up and the energy would never be recycled into the earth We would be swimming in trash If it s not broken down it won t be utilized and there will be a huge accumulation of material Basidiomycota basidiomycetes or club fungi Elaborate fruiting body basidiocarp containing many basidia that produce sexual spores basidiospores lnclude mushrooms puffballs and shelf fungi mycorrhizae and plant parasites The basidiomycetes are also called club fungi Many are decomposers of wood What we refer to as mushrooms Also come in various flavors shelf fungi puff balls They are breaking down wood One of their primary jobs Takes a lot of energy to break down the wood material Example of a basidiocarp Ring of mushrooms all genetically equal How does this ring happen There is a mycelium system underneath the fungi and they basically drive the fruiting bodies to make a ring Often what we see when we see the fairy rings a spore lands then when the hyphaemycelium grow theres an environmental cue that initiates fruiting Signaltransduction Concept 315 Fungi plant key roles in nutrient cycling ecological interactions and human welfare A lot of medical roles that fungi have too Nutrient cycling breaking down organic material ecological interactions human welfare Decomposers Essential recycling between the living and nonliving world Recycling the organic material from the nonliving world to the living world Making it accessible to the organisms that can t break it down themselves FungusPlant Symbiosis Mycorrhizae symbiotic relationship Increase plant productivity Example sterilizing soil One is receiving a fungi one is not You can see that there is less growth from the one not receiving fungi Independent receiving fungi or not Hypothesis plant growth related to fungi Could measure a lot of things height nutrients etc FungusAnimal Symbiosis Helping break down plant material Relationships between fungi and animals Some fungi are harvested by fungi Ants is an example They utilize the fungi to break down organisms because they can t The fungi breaks it down into simpler compounds that the ants can consume Lichens Symbiotic association of photosynthetic microorganisms held in fungal hyphae Relationship Symbiotic relationship with bacteria or algae Fungal hyphae is developing a microorganism With algae in this case Fungi and algae Lichens The fungal component most is the fungal component ls most often an Ascomycete Algae or cyanobacteria interspersed is algae or bacteria surrounded by the hyphae Occupy an inner layer below the lichen surface iClicker In both lichens and mycorrhizae what does the fungal partner provide to its photosynthetic partner a carbohydrates no thats counterproductive plants already can make sugars fixed nitrogen bacteria does that fungi can t do that antibiotics nope we do use fungi for antibiotics but they don t provide it water and minerals acquiring minerals and providing access to water protection from harmful UV no a lot of UV in the soil system Do96 Pathogens Figure 3125ac About 30 of known fungal species Are parasites mostly on or in plants Not all fungi is good Farmers want to produce food massive amounts of organic material The fungi often is related to diseases and it is detrimental to the production of different plant systems A lot of chemical warfare going on to try to minimize the loss of plant production due to the fungi Practical Uses of Fungi Make cheeses alcoholic beverages and bread it s Friday Important for pizza and generating beverages Genetic research on fungi is leading to applications in biotechnology look at all different compounds that fungi use and how to apply that to biotechnology Antibiotics produced by fungi treat bacterial infections Chapter 29 How Plants l Colonized Land lt s thought that life arose in a wet and warm environment But there is this massive amount of opportunity for this expansion of organisms into new environments in this early stage Lots of competition in this limited environment A lot less competition on the land Plants started to transition from the wet environment to land A lot was driven by the colonization of plants to the land Why would organisms follow plants onto land Access to food Why was there selective pressure Because they were food too Or there s not enough sun There s plenty of sun on land Concept 291 Land plants evolved from green algae Concept 292 Moses and other nonvascular plant have life cycles dominated by gametophytes Concept 293 Ferns and other seedless vascular plants formed the first forests iClicker Which of the following were probably factors that permitted early plants to successfully colonize land 1 the relative number of potential predators herbivores not a lot of predators on land It is something that allowed plants to successfully colonize land 2 the relative number of competitors competition for harvesting sunlight is relatively low So you don t have to be good at it 3 the relative availability of symbiotic partners fungi and mycorrhizae were probably big help in bring the plants to land 4 air s relative lack of support compared to water s support this is an important concept It s easier to float in water than it is on land Water is providing support so the plants can stay upright Otherwise the gravity will pull it down The lack of air in water made it difficult for the plants to transition because they had to stay upright on their own Plants can hold themselves upright by their cell walls and this was important when they transitioned onto land ANSWER 123 Concept 291 Land plants evolved from green algae Chlorophytes include Unicellular colonial multicellular forms Thought to have evolved from chlorophytes You can see that they have some features you may recognize that start to look like leaves or root systems but aren t yet Land plants are thought to transition from these organisms Aquatic next to dry environment gt some plants can kind of go out of water sometimes This helped plants adapt to being able to do that all of the time Speciation occurred because there were incredible new environments The selective pressures helped cause this adaptive evolution Morphological and Biochemical Evidence There are five key traits that land plants share only with charophyceans Similarities in cell wall synthesis Photorespiratory enzymes similar between the two groups Photorespiration is taking up oxygen in place of C02 Is not directly linked to sugar production Photosynthesis takes up C02 Structure of sperm similarities between the terrestrial plants and algal system Similarities during cell division mechanisms shared ancestral traits between land plants and algal systems Homologous chloroplast really be familiar Driving photosynthesis Used to be free living organisms Look at genetic sequences and compare them to chloroplasts in algae and see they re the same chloroplasts Likely that there was a branching from the last common ancestor that also had these chloroplasts Really link these plants to the earlier algal systems Be familiar with the traits above Derived Traits of Land Plants Figure 295 Five key traits appear in nearly all land plants but are absent in the charophyceans Apical meristems shoot and root generation Alternation of generations Walled spores produced in sporangia produced from fungi Spore producing structures Multicellular gametangia they produce gametes Very complex male and female gamete structures Multicellular dependent embryos Embryos are very complex Derived characteristics Be familiarwith these Apical Meristems Alternation of Generations two multicellular bodies Additional derived units Cuticle and secondary compounds evolved in many plant species Land plants can be informally grouped Based on the presence or absence of vascular tissue Vascular tissue cells joined in tubes to transport water and nutrients Byrophytes nonvascularplants Liverworts Hornworts and Mosses Vascularpants Seedless vascular plants Seed vascular plants Highlights of plant evolution Concept 292 Moses and other nonvascular plant have life cycles dominated by gametophytes Bryophytes three phyla of herbaceous plants Liverworts Hornworts Mosses Bryophyte diversity Mosses Life Cycle of a Moss Bryophyte diversity Liverworts Bryophyte diversity Hornworts Ecological and Economic Importance of Mosses Sphagnum or peat moss Forms extensive deposits known as peat Earth s carbon cycle Concept 293 Ferns and other seedless vascular plants formed the first forests Prevalent vegetation during the first 100 million years of plant evolution Life Cycles with Dominant Sporophytes Sporophytes of seedless vascular plants are the larger generation Gametophytes are tiny The Significance of Seedless Vascular Plants First forests during Carboniferous General groups of seedless vascular plants Life Cycle of a Fern What makes vascular plants vascular Vascular plants have two types of vascular tissue Xylem and phloem Vascular tissue Xylem Conducts water and minerals Dead cells called tracheids Phloem Distributes sugars amino acids and other organic products Consists of living cells Evolution of Roots Roots Are organs that anchor vascular plants Absorb water and nutrients from the soil Evolution of Leaves Leaves Increase surface area to capture solar energy Types of leaves Microphylls leaves with a single vein MegaphyIs leaves with a highly branched vascular system Sporophylls and Spore Variations Sporophylls Are modified leaves with sporangia Sporophylls and Spore Variations Chapter 30 Plant Diversity II The Evolution of Seed Plants Concept 301 Seeds and pollen grains are key adaptations for life on land Concept 302 Gymnosperms bear naked seeds typically on cones Concept 303 The reproductive adaptations of angiosperms include flowers and fruits Concept 304 Human welfare depends greatly on seed plants


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