Chapter Five Notes
Chapter Five Notes CCJ 2020
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Danielle Pagano on Sunday March 1, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CCJ 2020 at Florida International University taught by Juan Saiz in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 188 views. For similar materials see Criminal Justice System in Art at Florida International University.
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Date Created: 03/01/15
Chapter Five Public Policing and Private Securitv History of Police Tything people grouped into collectives of 10 families and were entrusted with policing their own minor problems such as dealing with disturbances fire wild animals and other threats Hue and Cry in medieval England a call for mutual aid against trouble or danger Hundred n medieval England a group of 100 families responsible for maintaining order and trying minor offenses Shire Reeve In early England the chief law enforcement official in a county forerunner of today s sheriff Sheriff The chief law enforcement officer in a county Watch Svstem n medieval England groups of men who organized in church parishes to guard at night against disturbances and breaches of the peace under the direction of the local constable Constablen early English townsan appointed peacekeeper who organized citizens for protection and supervised the night watch Justice of Peace official appointed to act as the judicial officer in a country Private Police and Thief Takers At the start of the 18th century crime rates went up and cities encouraged a new form of private monied police who were able to profit both legally and criminally from the lack of formal police departments were universally corrupt they were taking profits not only from catching and informing on criminal but also from theft receiving stolen property and blackmail The London Metropolitan Police In 1829 Sir Robert Peel England s home secretary created the quotAct for Improving the Police in and near the Metropolisquot Metrooolitan Police Act Peel s legislation that first organized police force in London Law Enforcement in Colonial America Coonia sheriff did not patrol or seek out crime reacted to citizens complaints and investigated crimes that had occurred paid on fee system of effectiveness sheriff made fixed pay for every arrest made Their tax collecting tactics were more lucrative than fighting crime law enforcement was not one of their main concerns night watchmaneatherheads patrolled street calling the hour while equipped with a rattle to summon help and a nightstick to ward off lawbreakers the night watchman were not highly respected quotSave patrolsquot charged with recapturing escaped slaves were an early if loathsome form of law enforcement igilantes a committee that called upon to capture cattle thieves and other types of felons vigiance was a popular way to solve problems Early Police Agencies Boston created the first US police department in 1838 Second was New York in 1844 Third was Philadelphia in 1854 These new police systems and departments replaced the night watch system Relegated constables and sheriffs serving court orders Relegated running jails The Emergence of Profession Turn of 20th century recognized nation leaders called for measures to help improve and professionalize police nternationa Association of Chiefs of PoliceACP created in 1893 First president of lACP was Richard Sylvester ACP was the leading voice for police reform for first two decades of the 20th century Herbert Hoover created the National Commission on Law Observance and EnforcementWickersham Commissionin 1929 It was created to study the criminal justice system and to suggest improvements Wickersham Commission Report of 1931 had two volumes that dealt with police specifically Volume 2 portrayed police in an unfavorable light Caing police inept inefficient racist brutal and criminal Volume 2 was called Lawlessness in Law Enforcement Volume 14 authored mostly by August Vollmer discussed methods that could be used to professionalize police Volume 14 was called The Police Policing From the 19605 to the 19905 Policing in the 19605 During this era the US Supreme Court handed down a number of decisions designed to control police operations and procedures police were required to obey strict guidelines when questioning suspects conducting searches and wiretapping police claimed that they were being quothandcuffed by the courtsquot Policing in the 19705 Federal Government support increased lt greatly influenced police operations Law Enforcement Assistance AdministrationLEAA devoted a good amount of its funds to police agencies Funds went toward supporting innovative research on police work and training Number of the funds went toward littleused hardware LEAA had a Law Enforcement Education Program that helped many with their college educa on Policing in the 19805 Police seen as not crime fighters Police were to develop greater awareness of community issues emergence of community policing concept Policing in the 19905 cooperation with community and problem solving Communitv bolicino integrate police in the community to reduce crime and gain good community relations involves personalized service decentralized police citizen empowerment and an effort to reduce community fear of crime disorder and decay Policing and Law Enforcement Today The US Justice Department Headed by the attorney general empowered to enforce federal laws represent US when it is party to court action conduct independent investigation through law enforcement services The Federal Bureau of Investigation Established in 1924 The FBI collects and maintains a vast fingerprint file that can be used by local police agencies Crime Lab established in 1932 helps local police test and identify evidence like hairs fibers blood tire tracks and drugs Uniform Crime report is another service the FBI offers US Marshals nations oldest federal law enforcement agency Duties Judicial Security protection of judicial officials overseas each aspect of courthouse construction this is to ensure safety Fugitive investigations apprehend thousands of dangerous felons primary agency responsible for tracking and extraditing fugitives who are apprehended in foreign countries and water for prosecution in the US Witness security ensures safety of witnesses who risk their lives testifying for the government in cases involving organized crime and other significant criminal activity Prison services houses more than 55000 federal unsentenced prisoners each day in federal state and local jails Justice Prisoner and Alien Transportation SystemJPATS in 1995 the Marshals service and the Immigration and Naturalization Service merged to form a more efficient and effective system for transporting prisoners and criminal aliens Asset Forfeiture Program responsible for managing and disposing of seized and forfeited properties acquired by criminals through illegal activities Department of Homeland Security DHS Created after the 911 terrorist attacks mission of preventing terrorist attacks within the US has many independent branches and bureaus These branches being Immigration and Customs Enforcement Customs and Border Protection and US Secret Service Customs and Border ProtectionCBP responsible for protecting our nations borders in order to prevent terrorism human and drug smuggling illegal immigration and agricultural pests from entering the US mproving flow of legitimate trade and travel Immigration and Customs EnforcementlCE largest branches of DHS responsible for identifying and shutting down vulnerabilities in the nations border economic transportation and infrastructure security four components to ICE Office of Investigations investigates domestic and international activities that include movement of people and good that violate immigration and customs laws Office of Detention and Removal Operations responsible for public and national security do this by removal of all aliens through the fairness of the nations immigration laws Office of Intelligence responsible for collection analysis and dissemination of strategic and tactical intelligence data Office of International AffairsOlA conducts and coordinates international investigations involving transitional criminal organizations responsible for the illegal movement of people goods and technology into and out of the US The Secret Service protect president and vice president their families heads of state and other high level officials involve investigation threats against protected officials and protecting the White House and other buildings within Washington DC investigate counterfeiting and theory financial crimes State Law Enforcement Texas Rangers created in 1835 First state police agencies formed at the time they were mainly a military outfit that patrolled Mexican border Followed by Massachusetts State constables in 1865 Arizona Rangers in 1901 Pennsylvania formed true modern police in 1905
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