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# Chemistry basics 20234

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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by parna deljo on Sunday March 1, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 20234 at University of Houston Downtown taught by Dr. Christmas in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 68 views. For similar materials see 1308 general chemistry in Chemistry at University of Houston Downtown.

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Date Created: 03/01/15

chapter 0 chemical tools experimentations and measurements ask questions do background research conduct experiment make a hypothesis Theory know the SI Prefixes Factor Prefix Symbols Example 1000000000 10quot9 giga G 1 gigameter Gm 10quot9 m 1000000 10quot6 mega M 1 megameter Mm 10quot6 m 1000 10quot3 kilo k 1 kilogram Kg 10quot3 9 0110quot1 deci d 1 decimeter dm 2 01 m 001 10A2 centi c 1 centimeter cm 2 001 m 0001 10quot3 milli m 1 milligram mg 0001 9 Mass amount of matter in an object anything u can touch feel gas liquid and solids Weight a measurement of the force that gravity exerts on an objects Temperature F 9f5f c32 f C 5c9f F32f k c 27315 Measuring Volume 1m 3 1000 dmquot3 1000000 cmquot3 1 dmquot31 L 1000 mL 1cmquot3 0001 mquot3 Density density massvolume Energy is the capacity to supply heat or work 8 unites joules Calories is used for measuring foods Accuracy how close to the true value is a measurement is Precision how well a number of independent measurements agree wit beach other 1 cal 418J and 1d 02390 cal 1 Cal 1000 cal 1 kcal 4184 kJ significant figures the total numbers of digits recorded for a measurements or the calculation quality zeros in the middle of a number are like any other digit they are always significant 4803 zeros at the beginning of a number are not significant 000661 zeros at the end of a number and afterthe decimal point are always significant 55220 zeros at the end of a number and before the decimal point may or may not be significant 344200 for keeping track of the significant figures multpication the answer cant have more sigfig than either or the original numbers addition the answer cant have more digits to the right rounding of numbers in the book 1 in carrying out a multiplication or division the answer can t have more significant figures than either of the original numbers 2 in carrying out an addition or subtraction the answer can t have more digits to the right of the right of the decimal point that either of the original numbers 99 03 Chapter 1 The structures and stability of atoms law of definite proportions deferent samples of pure chemical compounds always contain the same mass elements combine in specific proportion not different and random Dalton atomic theory law of multiple proportion nitric oxide nitrous oxide atoms basic unite of chemical element element cannot be broken down by chemical means Kinetic energy 12 mv2 w PAV Ptotal P1P2P3 u 3RTMVV 2 AG AH TAS PV nRT Rate oc MVVquot2 P1X1Ptota C qAT Ptotal P1 P2 P3 M molL K 0C 27316 wdxF Em H P EW 539 f39Lh C 31 M1V1 M2V2 Ptotal P1 P2 P3 M molL 1v 4 h 6626 x 103934 J sec c 29979 x 108 msec e 1602 x103919 C NA 6022 X 1023mol I i it 5 J J Lb o 39 Average Bond dissociation Energies kJmol H H C H N H O H F F 436 410 390 460 159 H C c c N C o c CI CI 410 350 300 350 243 H F C F N F O F Br Br 570 450 270 180 193 H CI C CI N CI O CI 432 330 200 200 151 H Br C Br N Br O Br S F 366 270 240 210 310 H I C I O I S CI 298 240 220 250 H N C N N N O N S Br 390 300 240 200 210 H O C O N O O O S S 460 350 200 180 225 H S C S 0 8 340 260 364 CC CO OO OS NO 611 732 498 535 598 CEC CEN NEN 837 891 946 Bond dissociation energies for diatomic molecules are exact k 1381 x1023 JK K 0C 27316 1 kcal 4184 kJ R 00821 L atmmol K 624 L torrmol K 831 kJmol K Standard Temperature and Pressure 0 C and 1 atm 760 torr 760 mm Hg 100 atm 101 kPa 146 psi 30 in Hg Specific heat water 4184 Jg K Specific heat AI 0902 J 9 K Specific heat Cu 0385 Jg K AHvaporization AHrusion H20 333 Jg mass electron 9109 x 103931 kg NP AM We Forum Minot 8W th MM Acetylene CgHglr 2267 Hydrogen chlome HUN 923 Ammonva M 111 461 lronlll once FezMs 821 2 Carbon doxne W q 3935 Magnesium carbonate MgC0l 10958 Carbon monomde COR 1105 Methane C Hd c 7amp8 Ethanol C Hgomi l o 2777 N11th owe ND 902 Ethylene C3 W 523 Waterlgl 11300 2418 Glucose 31141151 1260 Watetll 1100 285 8 chapter 0 chemical tools experimentations and measurements ask questions do background research conduct experiment make a hypothesis Theory know the SI Prefixes Factor Prefix Symbols Example 1000000000 10quot9 giga G 1 gigameter Gm 10quot9 m 1000000 10quot6 mega M 1 megameter Mm 10quot6 m 1000 10quot3 kilo k 1 kilogram Kg 10quot3 9 0110quot1 deci d 1 decimeter dm 2 01 m 001 10A2 centi c 1 centimeter cm 2 001 m 0001 10quot3 milli m 1 milligram mg 0001 9 Mass amount of matter in an object anything u can touch feel gas liquid and solids Weight a measurement of the force that gravity exerts on an objects Temperature F 9f5f c32 f C 5c9f F32f k c 27315 Measuring Volume 1m 3 1000 dmquot3 1000000 cmquot3 1 dmquot31 L 1000 mL 1cmquot3 0001 mquot3 Density density massvolume Energy is the capacity to supply heat or work 8 unites joules Calories is used for measuring foods Accuracy how close to the true value is a measurement is Precision how well a number of independent measurements agree wit beach other 1 cal 418J and 1d 02390 cal 1 Cal 1000 cal 1 kcal 4184 kJ significant figures the total numbers of digits recorded for a measurements or the calculation quality zeros in the middle of a number are like any other digit they are always significant 4803 zeros at the beginning of a number are not significant 000661 zeros at the end of a number and afterthe decimal point are always significant 55220 zeros at the end of a number and before the decimal point may or may not be significant 344200 for keeping track of the significant figures multpication the answer cant have more sigfig than either or the original numbers addition the answer cant have more digits to the right rounding of numbers in the book 1 in carrying out a multiplication or division the answer can t have more significant figures than either of the original numbers 2 in carrying out an addition or subtraction the answer can t have more digits to the right of the right of the decimal point that either of the original numbers 99 03 Chapter 1 The structures and stability of atoms law of definite proportions deferent samples of pure chemical compounds always contain the same mass elements combine in specific proportion not different and random Dalton atomic theory law of multiple proportion nitric oxide nitrous oxide atoms basic unite of chemical element element cannot be broken down by chemical means Kinetic energy 12 mv2 w PAV Ptotal P1P2P3 u 3RTMVV 2 AG AH TAS PV nRT Rate oc MVVquot2 P1X1Ptota C qAT Ptotal P1 P2 P3 M molL K 0C 27316 wdxF Em H P EW 539 f39Lh C 31 M1V1 M2V2 Ptotal P1 P2 P3 M molL 1v 4 h 6626 x 103934 J sec c 29979 x 108 msec e 1602 x103919 C NA 6022 X 1023mol I i it 5 J J Lb o 39 Average Bond dissociation Energies kJmol H H C H N H O H F F 436 410 390 460 159 H C c c N C o c CI CI 410 350 300 350 243 H F C F N F O F Br Br 570 450 270 180 193 H CI C CI N CI O CI 432 330 200 200 151 H Br C Br N Br O Br S F 366 270 240 210 310 H I C I O I S CI 298 240 220 250 H N C N N N O N S Br 390 300 240 200 210 H O C O N O O O S S 460 350 200 180 225 H S C S 0 8 340 260 364 CC CO OO OS NO 611 732 498 535 598 CEC CEN NEN 837 891 946 Bond dissociation energies for diatomic molecules are exact k 1381 x1023 JK K 0C 27316 1 kcal 4184 kJ R 00821 L atmmol K 624 L torrmol K 831 kJmol K Standard Temperature and Pressure 0 C and 1 atm 760 torr 760 mm Hg 100 atm 101 kPa 146 psi 30 in Hg Specific heat water 4184 Jg K Specific heat AI 0902 J 9 K Specific heat Cu 0385 Jg K AHvaporization AHrusion H20 333 Jg mass electron 9109 x 103931 kg NP AM We Forum Minot 8W th MM Acetylene CgHglr 2267 Hydrogen chlome HUN 923 Ammonva M 111 461 lronlll once FezMs 821 2 Carbon doxne W q 3935 Magnesium carbonate MgC0l 10958 Carbon monomde COR 1105 Methane C Hd c 7amp8 Ethanol C Hgomi l o 2777 N11th owe ND 902 Ethylene C3 W 523 Waterlgl 11300 2418 Glucose 31141151 1260 Watetll 1100 285 8

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