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PHYS 1010 - Week 7 Notes

by: HaleyG

PHYS 1010 - Week 7 Notes PHYS 1010-01

Marketplace > Tulane University > Physics 2 > PHYS 1010-01 > PHYS 1010 Week 7 Notes
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Lecture Notes
Great Ideas in Science & Tech
Timothy Schuler
Class Notes
Schuler, Great ideas in science and tech
25 ?




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Popular in Physics 2

This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by HaleyG on Saturday February 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PHYS 1010-01 at Tulane University taught by Timothy Schuler in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see Great Ideas in Science & Tech in Physics 2 at Tulane University.


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Date Created: 02/27/16
PHYS Notes Week 7 Feb 22­26 Electric Charge ­ Particles have either a positive or negative charge ­ Combining these particles into atoms/molecules result in three possibilities ­ Negatively charged: object contains more negative particles than positive particles ­ Positively charged: object contains more positive particles than negative  particles ­ Electrically neutral: object contains equal amounts of positive and  negative particles ­ Nature prefers neutral charges ­ The terms "positive" and "negative" don't mean anything; they just refer to the  fact that the charges are opposite ­ Electrostatic/electric force: the force that charged particles exert on each other ­ Objects with the same electrical charge repel each other, while objects  with opposite electrical charges attract each other ­ Strong electrical charges can induce an opposite charge in a neutrally  charged system ­ Grounding it can neutralize a system’s charge ­ Grounding: touching an object to the ground (the earth is so big  that it can absorb any extra charge without problem) ­ Unit of electric charge is a coulomb (C) ­ Derived from base unit of ampere, which is a measure of current ­ Current: rate at which charge moves past a given point in a given amount of time ­ Charge is quantized (comes in basic units based on electrons that cannot be  divided) ­ Basic unit of charge: electron ­ Historically led to the development of quantum mechanics ­ Charge is conserved (cannot be created or destroyed, only moved around) ­ Charge moving through materials ­ Conductors vs. insulators ­ Conductors allow electrons to move freely (ex. metal) ­ Everything can be a conductor with enough electricity ­ Insulators don't allow electrons to move as freely ­ Semi­conductors are somewhere in between ­ Superconductors allow charge to move without hindrance ­ Coulomb’s law ­ Force exerted by charged particles on each other depends on the size of  the charge of the particles as well as their distance from one another ­ Two positive or two negative charges ­­> particles push away from each  other; one negative and one positive charge ­­> particles attract each other * Increasing force means opposite charges (attracting particles) ­ Electric fields: electrostatic forces existing around a charged particle ­ Determine what a field looks like by placing a test charge near it and  measuring the force applied to the test charge ­ We draw electric field using field lines  ­ Field lines closer together shows stronger force ­ Field lines extend away from positive charges and toward  negative charges ­ If we create a field, we can direct a particle through it (old TVs) ­ Charged particles have potential energy ­ Electric potential (voltage): potential energy per electrical charge  ­ Electric current: flow of electrons in motion (negative to positive)  ­ Produced by voltage ­ Inserting battery into loop of conductive material creates a flow ­ Conduction ­ Some materials conduct electricity better due to resistance of the material ­ Resistance inhibits flow ­ Ohm: unit of resistance ­ Ohm's law: as potential increases, current increases, and when  resistance increases, current decreases ­ Series Circuits ­ Battery/power supply: creates a difference in potential energy ­ Path from one end of battery to another (wire or other conductive  material) ­­> electrical current ­ Electrons pushed through a resistor, which slows the current down/steals  kinetic energy from the electrons to power a machine ­ Power multiple machines by adding multiple resistors to circuit around  the circuit ­ Each resistor increases the overall resistance of circuit ­ Parallel circuits ­ Put resistors into a circuit next to each other, creating multiple paths for  the electron to move through ­ If one of the paths slows down (because electrons have to slow to enter  the resistor), the backed­up electrons move through the next parallel resistor ­ Adding resistors decreases the resistance of the circuit, increasing current flow (like adding lanes to a highway) ­ Too fast of a current is an issue because wires can only hold so much  electricity ­ Direct current (DC): current that flows in only one direction ­ Usually used in electronics/devices ­ Alternating current (AC): current alternates direction (60 times/s (60 Hz)),  which changes, faster than what we can see (20 Hz) ­ Easier to generate and travel over long distances ­ Argument between Tesla (AC) vs. Edison (DC) because AC is dangerous ­ Edison created the electric chair, which used AC ­ Transformers are used to change between AC and DC


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