Political Science 6 Week 2
Political Science 6 Week 2
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Date Created: 04/16/14
POL S 6 040714 Industrial Revolution in Britain 17601860 Natural resource curse 0 State itself doesn39t develop as much 0 Usually a severe problem of corruption 0 Cause problems of development for the rest of the economy Germany in 1707 0 Germany as a state doesn39t exists until 1871 o Literally created by war 0 Small city states 0 Prussia becomes dominant I Otto von Bismarck Chancellor of Prussia and Germany 18621890 0 Known as the Iron Chancellor Politics is the art of the possible The great questions of the day will be settled not by means of speeches and majority decisions but by iron and blood 0 Germany was playing catchup to Britain and US Britain is not part of the Eurozone o The Schengen Area I Can transition freely I UK is not part of this also 0 Wars result in state development in the long run I Having to mobilize people to fight and retracting resources develop 0 Theories of war and development do better than theory of diffusion Brazilian independence 0 Dom Pedro I I Stayed in Brazil and declared Brazil independent 0 Colonized by Portugal I Economy built on gold sugar and wood The Indian National Congress 0 1885 Indian National Congress forms 0 1907 Indian National Congress begins to advocate openly for Indian independence 0 1915 Gandhi becomes president of INC begins campaign of civil disobedience 0 19201940 INC expands across India establishing state level branches ending high dues and practices discriminating on basis of race or caste introducing election for leadership posts 0 19471952 A Congressdominated Assembly delivers a constitution establishing democracy sweeps first elections 0 POL S 6 040914 Nigeria Also a former British colony Also divided along ethnic and religious lines Also negotiated independence Independence in 1960 rather than 19405 Unlike India has fought a prolonged civil war Unlike India democracy did not survive State even weaker more corrupt and more ineffective than India No indication that development policies working Have similar traits to India but have different outcomes 0 Why What happened I Oil India didn39t have any oil Nigeria had a massive amount of oil Easily captured by the state and became a problem Made control of the state critical for wealth Control the military control the oil Oil was concentrated in Biafra 0 Ethnicity religion about who controls the oil 0 Democracy didn39t survive I Leadership Mahatma Gandhi v Yakubu Gowon Gandhi o Built INC that39s inclusive organized stable that covers the entire country founded on non violence Gowon I Bad neighbors India39s neighbors 0 Failed State ranking 0 Pakistan 13 0 Bangladesh 29 0 China 66 Nigeria39s neighbors 0 Failed State ranking 0 Chad 5 0 Nigeria 16 o Niger 18 0 Cameroon 27 o Benin 78 Political Regimes What is a regime A set of rules that govern political activity especially the relationship between state and citizens members of the political community What rights duties and obligations do citizens have toward the state What rights duties and obligations does the state have to citizens Regime types Liberal democracy common Socialism communism currently uncommon Fascism currently extinct Modernizing authoritarianism still exists Semi authoritarianism common Theocracy rare but many examples of theocratic movements Liberal democracy Regime type that meets 3 essential conditions 0 1 Meaningful and extensive competition I Among individuals and groups esp through political parties for all effective positions of government power at regular intervals and excluding the use of force elections with competition 0 2 Highly inclusive level of political participation 0 3 A level of civil and political liberties sufficient to ensure the integrity of political competition and participation Civil ad political liberties of the individual are necessary to preserve meaningful democratic competition The rights of the citizens to individual liberty and the responsibilities of the citizens to participate in the political process are bound up together in a liberal democracy Preservation of individual rights is among the chief responsibilities of the state in a liberal democracy To a much greater extent than in other regime types the purpose of the state is protection of individual Thomas Hobbes Leviathan 1651 Without a state life is nasty brutish and short Weaker individuals fail victim to stronger individuals who take what they want in a war of all against all The only solution is an all powerful monarch 0 Not accountable to anyone and can abuse power King ohn the Lackland v King Richard the Lionheart The Magna Carta 1215 o Required the king to consult English barons before levying significant new taxes o Established the principle that barons should have a trial by their peers o Guaranteed the freedom of the Catholic church from royal intervention o Created an assembly of barons elected by all English barons that could declare the king in violation of treaty and therefore deposed 0 Beginning of liberal democracy in England 0 Council of barons origins of parliament The Glorious Revolution of 1688 16891889 0 Power shifts from monarch to Parliament o Power shifts from small nobility to larger electorate Social democracy Basic requirements of liberal democracy civil and political liberties protected by the state In addition basic social and economic rights of individual also guaranteed by the state But markets remain the basic model of economic growth and democracy remains the political regime The role of the state expands but does not replace civil society and the private sector as in other regimes Participatory democracy Basic requirements of liberal democracy civil and political liberties protected by the state Further reduces the role of the central state expands the participatory responsibilities of the citizens In order to be truly democratic government requires the direct participation of individual citizens This in turn requires maximum decentralization POL S 6 041114 Communism socialism Capitalism is based on exploitation of wage labor proletariat by those who control the mans of production bourgeoisie o The role of the state was to protect the bourgeoisie at the expense of the workers not equal o This situation is not destined to last The capitalist state functions as little more than the executive committee of the bourgeoisie supporting the power of capital Founded by Marx Like all previous economic systems capitalism contains within it the seeds of its own destruction impoverished workers will eventually be unable to generate new wealth for their masters because they will no longer be able to purchase the goods they produce and will rise up against them The resulting inevitable revolution will inevitably end the capitalist system The first phase of the next economic system socialism will require the working class to establish the dictatorship of the proletariat just as the capitalist state was the dictatorship of the bourgeoisie to o Demolish the remnants of the capitalist system particularly any class enemies who remain 0 Establish collective ownership of the mans of production During this phase the role of the state is to ensure that no one acts against the interests of the proletariat Eventually when everyone has become a member of the proletariat the state will no longer be necessary to ensure that no one acts against the interests of the proletariat The state will then wither away The second state is communism Real Existing Socialism The USSR Promoted rapid industrialization State ownership of land and industries Five Year Plans set production goals wages and prices Ioseph Stalin Leader of USSR 19291953 o Stalin means Man of Steel o Understood power rather than theory o Believed security depended on military strength Social and political role of the state To protect interests of the proletariat by suppressing class enemies o Limit electoral competition only one party Communist Party o Limit press and speech punish dissent 0 Monitor citizen thoughts and behavior KGB Soviet Secret Police To mold and form the new socialist man by proper education 0 Mass literacy campaigns 0 Socialist realism in literature art theater 0 Edited version of news events in Pravda Truth Communist goals totalitarianism Reality fell short of aspirations even under the most extreme conditions Stalin After Stalin39s death successive leaders experimented with looser forms of economic and political control Mikhail Gorbachev leader of USSR from 19851991 adopts policies of perestroika economic opening and glasnost Communism socialism today Soviet proved unsuccessful in creating new socialist man or an economy that grew steadily in the long term The Soviet state39s terrible human rights record increased popular rejection of the communist model After the collapse of the Soviet Union and its satellite states in Eastern Europe few self proclaimed communist states remain The socialist regime no longer seems to be an appealing model for most revolutionary movements Fascism vs Communism Communism state rules on behalf of the proletariat class to suppress other classes Fascism classes are not in con ict with one another Rather classes play different but complementary roles within the society as a whole seen as a living organism the nation The fascist state exists to guide and protect the nation Fascism Fascism is not the same thing as racism Hitler was both a fascist and a racist Mussolini was a fascist But Italy under Mussolini refused to cooperate with Germany39s requests to deport or murder Italian ews and Italy even protected ewish refugees who escaped to Italian territory Fascism is not the same thing as nationalism Fascism also argues that 0 The needs of the nation come before the needs of individuals or groups 0 Individual rights are not protected 0 The state controls mass communications and monitors private activity to repress dissent
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