Psychology Notes 4/21/16 Exam 4
Psychology Notes 4/21/16 Exam 4 1557
Kutztown University of Pennsylvania
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Melissa Metzgar on Sunday April 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 1557 at Kutztown University of Pennsylvania taught by Dr. Manos Akillas in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see General Psychology (PSY 11) in Psychlogy at Kutztown University of Pennsylvania.
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Date Created: 04/24/16
Topics for the 4th Exam -Behavioral Theories -Cognitive Theories -Personal Constructs Theory -Social Factors -Psychological Testing Behavioral Theories -Behavioral theories of personality are based on principles of learning (ex. The work of Pavlov (dogs) or Skinner (enforcement)) -They are used to try and understand human beings -outdated, humans are too complex -Successful in anxiety and phobias Joseph Wolpe -believed that phobias are learned -systematic desensitization (phobia treatment) -if someone learned a phobia, introduce a new learning of replacing a fear with a positive response 1. Make a list of the person’s fear in different situations, ranked by the degree of fear within each situation 2. Train the person in deep muscle relaxation through a series of exercises and tensing and relaxing opposite pairs of muscles (for about 45 minutes) 3. Ask them to imagine the least fearful situation while still doing relaxation exercises a. Keep doing this while gradually escalating the fearful situations and stop where it makes sense b. Sometimes you can even have the stimulus there, but only if it’s logical and practical Cognitive Theories -used in understanding depression -use thinking as an explanation for things Aaron Beck’s Cognitive Theory of Depression -depression is a distortion of reality -the way they see themselves is negative -the way they see the world is negative -the way they see the future is as if it’s not going to get better -huge discrepancy between thinking and the objective facts Magnification: when people exaggerate all the negative aspects of a situation Minimization: when people downplay the good aspects of a situation Logical and Philosophical Arguments as Therapy -get the person to believe the opposite through logical arguments proving them wrong and to see the reality of the situation Criticism of Aaron Beck’s Theory of Depression -Awareness of distortion -a lot of depressed people say that they know things aren’t as bad as they say they are -many people exaggerate the negative things but aren’t depressed -inexperienced therapists can cause the person to feel blamed and ultimately make them feel worse -Alloy and Abramson -2 graduate students that did a study to originally prove Beck right in his theory -took 2 groups of people (one healthy and one depressed) and gave them the task of turning on a light (which sometimes worked and sometimes didn’t) -afterwards they asked them to guess the percentage of the time that they had control over the light -found that the depressed group was more accurate in their guess of their control -the healthy people were distorting their level of control Martin Seligman -did experiments with animals to understand depression Learned Helplessness Theory Attribution -explanations people come up with for things that happen to them Internal→ cause was something about you External→ cause was something not about you Specific→ only applies to a particular situation General→ effects a lot of your life situations Stable→ cause is something relatively permanent Unstable→ cause is something temporary Cognitive Bias -depressed have a bias about when things happen to them Positive -usually external, specific, and unstable -they don’t take credit for the positive things and don’t feel good about it Negative -usually internal, general, and stable -they blame themselves when something bad happens and it effects lots of their life and it will be permanent George Kelly’s Personal Constructs Theory Reality and interpretation -reality isn’t important -interpreting and understanding is the most important -everyone has a different view of reality Personality constructs -the way we interpret reality -a rule that discriminates between things -have 2 sides (friend vs. enemy) -our thinking is based on making discriminations -leads us to have certain expectations, which because of this we end up having problems in life -we develop anger and hostility from forcing others to conform to our expectations Fixed Role Therapy -Kelly asked them to pretend for a time that they are someone else -he gave them a script to follow -changes the interpretation of their own issues
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