Environmental Studies 3 Week 2
Environmental Studies 3 Week 2
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This 8 page Reader was uploaded by Helen Notetaker on Wednesday April 16, 2014. The Reader belongs to a course at University of California Santa Barbara taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 67 views.
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Date Created: 04/16/14
ENV S 3 040814 Diamond39s Early Eurasia Major IDs The Axes Ch 18 Appropriate to talk about in terms of environmental advantages NorthSouth dominant Americas Africa 0 Corn cultivation in the Americas didn39t transfer like rice did East West dominant Eurasia 0 Rice Temperate zones 0 Tropic of cancer to polar zones Ecological barriers o Sahara desert in the middle of Africa that didn39t allow for resources to transfer down south more civilization near the river 0 Climate differences in Africa compared to Eurasia Contagion Ch 4 11 Spreading of disease of one individual to another by direct or indirect contact Microbes 0 Thinnest microbes find a way to adapt and change 0 How disease is passed on 0 Casual human contact sneezing coughing etc Measles tuberculosis smallpox in uenza birds swine pertusses common cold swine malaria chickens and ducks 0 Deadly gifts of livestock Immunities 0 Most ancient civilizations were the first to develop the diseases as well as immunities o Immunities passed down the generation Germs Guns and Steel pg 207 Mesopotamia Means between the rivers hot arid land inhospitable environmentally manipulative Tigris River Euphrates River Surpluses o Storing of food for future use 0 Have to generate surpluses and store food for scarce times Scarcity 0 Absence of abundance 0 There were dry times and wet times Cradle of civilization o Cradle of western civilization o Fertile Crescent 0 Began 7000 years ago Babylonians Assyrians Sumerians o This is how they called themselves 0 Present day Iraq Syria Iran Kuwait Turkey Babylon Urok Ur o Big cities 0 Efficient economies based on agriculture Stone Age 0 First to take stone tools and use them o Neolithic period modern Stone Age 0 Where they first heard about sheep and goats Irrigation systems o The two rivers allowed for irrigation systems to develop 0 Taking water backing it up planting the crops before the crops burn up in the summer Wheat millet barley o Domesticated cereal o 3 big crops they grew throughout the century 0 The soil is rich and advantage of the two rivers Civilization and wilderness o Built walled cities creating civilization and wilderness at the same time o Keeping themselves safe inside from wild beasts and wild humans protecting their resources Warfare 0 Water rights territory the mountain people coming from the east o The bigger the city state the more warfare they had the more slavery they had 0 Wars fought with mercenaries slaves 0 First city to rise and fall due to use of technology 0 Lasted about 2500 years Ancient Egypt Ch 14 Agricultural civilization based on the Nile River in uential throughout the Middle East culturally Protodynastic period o Began about 5400 BC Old Kingdom Middle Kingdom New Kingdom 0 Ends about 1000 BC Band where no one s in charge tribe chiefdom higher level of organization with a chief state dictator king elected official pg 268 269 263 0 Concept of kingdom is important to Diamond to explain the stages of government 0 Chiefdom by 5500 BC I Developed through technological advantages they had 0 State level after 1000 years later Kleoptocracy o Refers to the state level 0 In Greek kleopto to steal 0 Taking labors of workers to run the state 0 The more advance form of state level the more they can overwhelm other societies Pharaohs 0 Kings of Egypt throughout the periods kingdoms 0 Heads of state level bureaucracies Great Pyramid of Khufu o In the state level they produced things like pyramids with slave labor 0 2700 BC 13 acres in area almost 500 ft tall 0 Tributes tombs to various pharaohs Giza o Other pyramids Sphinx o In Giza at least 4700 years old 0 When Napoleon invaded they shot the nose off Natural irrigation 0 River naturally filled and emptied 0 Didn39t have to back up water Warfare and slavery 0 Egyptian society failed due to corruption slavery 0 Professional army Today39s Music Danse Baccanale from Samson and Delilah Ballet by Camille Saint Saens 18351921 Major IDs Who what where when why how environmental significance ENV S 3 041014 Diamond39s Early Eurasia cont Major IDs Dynastic China Ch 16 Neolithic period 0 Had sophisticated stone tools around 3000 BCE moved to Bronze Age Euro centrism in readings 0 China referred to as the Far East Diamond and Eurasia centrism 0 Modern interpretation of Euro centrism Pigs chickens water buffalo o 1000 years give or take China entered the agriculture civilization 0 Water buffalo part of the cow family I Used to get meat fertilizer etc Silkworms ducks geese tea peaches citrus fruits rice 0 Silkworms were domesticated to make silk first done in China 0 Ducks and geese first domesticated in China 0 Tea tree was first cultivated in China 0 First to domesticated citrus fruits 0 Rice cultivation became the staple diet in China Dynastic culture 0 Able to achieve state level culture by at least 2000 BCE if not earlier 0 Dynasties were ruling families in China generally defeated other families that were buying for supremacy all powerful I Huge group of Chinese society that were a part of a ruling dynastic family 0 Technologically China was part of many technological skills I Good at controlling water led to Grand Canal 0 China39s culture spread northward to Korea southward to Southeast Asia I Ancient society of the region Grand Canal Great Wall 0 Grand Canal I Controlled to use for travel I Created in the last Millennium 0 Great Wall I Built to keep the Mongols out I Big public works project Martial arts 0 People who lived in the villages were always under the threat of enemies I Used to learn how to use their fists and other parts of the body to defend themselves WushuKung Fu 0 Oldest martial art I Other martial arts come from this Warfare 0 Dynastic families were always trying to get power and maintain power 0 China was the oldest and the beginning of the highly technological advanced culture east of the Fertile Crescent Gilgamesh pg 362363 Ch 12 Written language Diamond identifies societies that used symbols these symbols became the idea behind written language written language were part of haves and have nots why did writing spread from the Fertile Crescent to Arabia but not from the Americas to Epic of Gilgamesh 2000 BC or BCE 0 First story ever written down in Mesopotamia in cuneiforms 0 Story of a king in Mesopotamia called Gilgamesh 0 Written down on 12 clay tablets only 10 survive 0 About values gods culture of Mesopotamia Sumerians in Mesopotamia 0 First to develop written language 0 Needed an account for all the grain in storage 3200 BCE 0 Clay tablets o The medium which cuneiforms were written on Cuneiforms o Things that became letters The first written thing Gilgamesh 0 King of Urok 0 Young oppresses his people 0 23 god and 13 human a demigod 0 Includes story similar to Noah39s ark Urok Anu 0 Sky god to do something about Gilgamesh s oppression of his people Enkidu 0 Created by Any as a wild man to come down to earth as Gilgamesh s rival Shambat 0 Prostitute sent by people of Urok to seduce Enkidu o Enkidu is tamed but he looses his physical powers at the same time I Gilgamesh maintains his power and learns to not oppress his people Papyrus 0 Indigenous to Sage family 0 Can be used to make many things like boats 0 Ancient scrolls were made of papyrus Parchment 0 Dry animal skin 0 Comes sometime in BCE period 0 More durable than papyrus Paper 0 Flat sheet made from plant fiber 0 Not used in Europe until 1300 AD 0 First developed in China in first century AD Indus Valley historical background and environment Starts in 2500 BCE disappeared about 1600 BCE only 900 year culture more modern Indus River Valley 0 Parts of modern western India parts of Pakistan 0 Biggest of the civilizations in the Fertile Crescent Saraswati River 0 Biggest river that ows through the civilization and the Indus itself Harappa 0 One of the two biggest cities of Indus Valley Mohenjo daro 0 The other biggest city of Indus Valley Written language 0 Scripts and symbols found but can39t decipher them Religion 0 Because of this not much is known about the religion of Indus Valley Urban planning 0 Digs show that there39s consistency 0 Both cities are similar in layout I Bricks had a standard size 0 Water 0 Not as water rich as China 0 So controlling water was important for Indus Valley 0 Lots of similarities in the ways they control water for both cities Sanitation 0 Water was important for sanitation 0 Open sewer line I Water carries the waste out into the river Pottery 0 Good at firing bricks so had facilities for pottery o Sophisticated pottery I Reveals a lot of the civilization I Used for storage eating utensils declarations monuments Crafts 0 Used for trading between goods Metals 0 Their work with metals showed they were good at science 0 Sophisticated tools I Fish hooks etc I Used bronze to fill teeth 0 Haven39t found anything related to the military I No armors shields swords etc I Indicates that warfare wasn39t frequent Didn39t seem to have fortifications I Nothing found of hierarchical structure of a kingdom or royalty Trade routes 0 Traded mostly with western Mesopotamia 0 Used seals to stamp products o Traded wheat barley oats millet sorghum grapes dates walnuts almonds and cotton Agriculture 0 Cattle sheep goats chickens camels water buffalos horses and donkeys 0 Mostly traded agricultural produce Indus Valley Decline It seemed liked a successful culture but what happened Invasion 0 Invaded by mountain peoples who were nomadic I Used horses to raid and conquer I Ex Mongols The Aryans 0 Could be that Aryans came and overthrew the civilization 0 But believe that Indus Valley was already in decline The Vedic texts 0 Written in sand script by descents of Indus Valley that became Indian culture 0 About religion and Hinduism 800 9OO BCE Over exploitation of natural resources o Forests wood and pasture land Deforestation o Needed big ovens to fire bricks I To make fire needed wood which led to deforestation 0 Causes land erosion and dustbowls Wood for baking Bricks Overgrazing Climate shifts o Water based society but droughts were frequent 0 Can39t go too long without rain Droughts Flooding o Might ve been wiped out o Monsoon area Earthquakes o Active seismic area 0 Believe that earthquakes may have shifted the rivers and there was no water going through Harappa A cautionary tale Today39s Music Mesopotamia by the B 52s King Tut by Steve Martin
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