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Tuesday Feb. 24- Thursday Feb. 26

by: Dilnoza Bobokalonova

Tuesday Feb. 24- Thursday Feb. 26 INS201

Marketplace > International Studies > INS201 > Tuesday Feb 24 Thursday Feb 26
Dilnoza Bobokalonova
GPA 3.381
Globalization and Change in world Politics
Margarita Rodriguez

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About this Document

These are the notes from the last week where the professor discussed Empires, the Imperial Legacies and the Russia/Ukraine- Crime Conflict. This one week of notes is consisted of six pages. You'll ...
Globalization and Change in world Politics
Margarita Rodriguez
Class Notes
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Dilnoza Bobokalonova on Sunday March 1, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to INS201 at a university taught by Margarita Rodriguez in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 165 views.

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Date Created: 03/01/15
Tuesday February 24th Empires Basic Concepts Empires Beyond the nationstate Studies on empire allow us to transcend the narrative on the history of states based on the Peace of Westphalia in 1648 as a starting point Although relevant such history misses the point of longlasting forms of political control that have functioned over thousands of years and beyond the West The Roman Empire The Byzantine Empire The Ottoman Empire Chinese dynasties These empires together with the British Spanish and others have shaped world history dramatically Theoretical debate Empire and NationState The study of empires allows us to understand other dimensions of the complexity of power and society This is not about understanding EMPIRES visavis smaller or less complex units of social and political organization such as cities tribes republics and nationstates Empires tend to be built upon the aggregation of these units huge confederations of tribes incorporation or subordination of nationstates within a single political umbrella etc diversity incorporation integration Definitions EMPIRE Structurally centralized political systems within which core elites dominate peripheral societies Imperialism implies that the motive of force must come from the center of power not from the periphery A composite state in which the center dominates a periphery to the disadvantage of the periphery The relationship between the center and the periphery relies on an asymmetry of power which permeates the flows of ideas resources and information that run between the core unit and the peripheral units The relationship can be formal gt complete control of the sovereignty of a state or informal gt partial yet effective dominance that erodes sovereignty in many respects ideology culture trade control of national resources control of labor etc without which does not imply complete political subordination to the core Empire comes from the latin lmperium meaning specific civil and military powers invested in magistrates related to specific functions such as declaring war or enforcing the law Greater territorial reach leads to the use of lmperium associated with the geopolitical aims of the lmperium Romanum lmperium Romanum was associated with a long history of domination involving significant territorial expansion Territorial expansion was associated with the idea of worldwide expansion Early connotations Oecumenicus and sine fine conveys the idea of eternal in time and boundless in space A sense of identity based on the idea of superiority often associated with religious destiny The Roman Empire Chinese doctrine of Mandate of Heaven The Mongol Empire rulers spread the belief of the heavenly origin of Genghis Khan s clan For the Spanish the sword and the cross were inseparable symbols of empire For the British Divine Right of Kings Large expansionist polities that are both incorporative and differentiated differentiated in terms of the economic cultural political roles social stratification etc Transnational forces of empire Imperialism implies the social expansion of the dominant society beyond its established territorial boundaries transnational extension of the society A multilayered and diverse through ideological economic political and cultural forcers among others and a multiplicity of actors process of coreperiphery penetration and incorporation Role of the elites The elites in the periphery may cooperate with and facilitate imperial policies or they may challenge them Incorporation may be based on the retention of diversity religious beliefs social organizations etc How to manage diversity and incorporation to its advantage is a key dilemma of empires Empire Diversity Empires as a geosocial socioeconomic military and political entities built on expansion Conquer and settlement or the conquest of sedentary societies by nomadic warriors eg the Mongol Empire Acculturation and transculturation of population groups through diverse mechanisms direct coercion legal instruments cultural schemes and socioeconomic mechanisms that include also forms of reverse assimilation and cooptation and not just oneway assimilation or the use of brutal force Access to resources including labor technologies knowledge and armies Empire as a political design 0 One basic notion of empire A form of control by a politically dominant entity over other entities including their territories eg natural resources established administrative jurisdictions populations economies armies and cultures based on supratribal supranational or other kinds of integration related to conquer alliances or both 0 Basic understantions of empire 0 Empire as a continuous social formation frontier conquer control and administration 0 Empire as a political design for the control of resources Civilizing mission The argument of civilizing mission For example both the British and the Russians saw themselves as powers that had a special mission to play in their respective orients The imagined subordinated societies in the imperial mentality shaped how subordinated peoples contracted mental and ideological constructs their own communities Others emphasize Ethical issues Are empires good or bad Consequentialism ties morality with the outcomes of human action Consequentialism virtue ethics and deontological ethics Virtue ethics emphasizes the character and conditions of the individual who executes the action Deontological ethics the action s adherence to a rule or rules duty or obligation is the ultimate measure of morality Nuances of Empire Effective control either formal or informal of a subordinated society by an imperial power Does it simply territorial conquer and formal legal transfer of sovereignty Not necessarily there may be control effective sovereignty without formal annexation or transfer of sovereignty Is a link based on metropolitancolonial or metropolitan powerperipheral sovereignty based on a hostile relationship Not necessarily imperial rule requires a degree of collaboration by members of the subordinated society Even in cases in which you have an imperial bureaucracy fully installed in a subordinated society you may have native clerks in the civilian workforce and even natives in the imperial army The government of vast territories can be left in the hands of a native group yet under the supervision of imperial governors Cooperation does not exclude resistance Given the cultural diversity of the populations at the core of which is language lingua franca linguistic assimilation has historically been a key feature of imperial powers cultural assimilation of the people and particularly the elites Impact on the psyche identities selfrespect of the subjugated people Empire as political design Thursday February 26 Imperial Legacies and the RussiaUkraine Crime Conflict RussiaUkraineCrimea Conflict 0 Causes of the Crisis 0 Statecentric costbenefit calculations 0 Strategic geopolitical worldsystemic perspective Strategic location of Crimea Access to the Eastern Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean Geopolitics has to take into consideration that we have a historical bottom between western European states and Russia Historical Antecedents The Crimean War The Crimean War 18531856 o A critical conflict in world history involving Russia against an alliance that included France Britain and the Ottoman Empire as the main actors o It was a war with a religious aspect and geopolitical strategic aspects Historical Antecedents 0 Russia lost the Crimean War in 1856 0 Yet a new war the RussiTurkish War unfolded in 1877 18771878 0 The ItaoTurkish Warthe Ottoman Empire loses Libya 0 The Balkan League declared war against the Ottoman Empire in 1921 0 19081922 the process of final collapse of the Ottoman Empire takes place Ukraine 0 Most of the Ukraine was under the control of the Russian Empire by he end of the 18th century 0 The Ukrainian state Kiev 1917 following the collapse of the Russian and AustroHungarian empires at the end of WW1 The Invasions from Polan and Moscow Followed 0 Ukraine was incorporated into the Soviet Union n 1922 Ukraine and Hitler s invasion The Nazis invaded Ukraine in 1941 became one of WW2 bloodiest battlefields Collapse of the Soviet Union In 1991 independence from the crumbling Soviet Union 0 ln Ukraine s 2004 presidential election the Kremlin backed proRussian candidate Viktor Yanukowch Ukraine 0 It offers one of Russia s biggest markets for natural gas exports 0 It is a critical transit route to the rest of Europe and Crimea in particular for its strategic location in the sea 0 75 million ethnic Russians live in Ukraine mostly in eastern Ukraine and the southern region of Crimea 0 About 25 of Ukraine s 46 million people claim Russian ancestry and Russia ad their mother tongue


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