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week of april 11-15

by: Molly Gersbach

week of april 11-15 Micr 407

Marketplace > Clemson University > Microbiology > Micr 407 > week of april 11 15
Molly Gersbach

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outline of covered material for part of exam 3
Food and Dairy Microbiology
Xiuping Jiang
Class Notes
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Molly Gersbach on Sunday April 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Micr 407 at Clemson University taught by Xiuping Jiang in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Food and Dairy Microbiology in Microbiology at Clemson University.


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Date Created: 04/24/16
Salmonella  Growth limitations  Some survival characteristics: why is salmonella so resistant? o Readily adapts to extremely environmental conditions  Most human pathogens die off quickly when environment is not ideal  (dry/heat/etc) o Heat shock response  Exposed to lethal temperature and the microbe has mechanism to survive.  Must lengthen lethal temperature exposure o Acid tolerance response (ATR)  Induced neuro­protein under acid conditions to survive  S. entertidis o 80% of SE outbreaks associated with Grade A shell eggs o how do eggs get contaminated with SE?  transmitted horizontally  when hen lays egg, egg is in contact with bed/feces/food/etc.  gets into egg when cracked if not cleaned properly  transmitted vertically from breading flocks to egg­laying hens  From hen to egg  inside egg, during hen ovulation  range of 1­400 cells of SE o Low infectious dose – as few as 15­20 cells o Incubation time 6 to 48 h and duration of symptoms is 1­2 days  S. typhimurium DT104 o Emerged in UK in 90’s o 90% of all DT104 isolates were resistant to ampicillin, chloramphenicol,  streptomycin, sulphonamides, and tetracycline  All common antibiotics  o Affecting about 68,00 to 340,000 people per year  Current status of Salmonella o Know top 5 serotypes:  S. enteritids  S. typhimurium  S. Newport  S. javiana  S. Heidelberg  Control of Salmonella o Food producing animals: competitive exclusion  If you expose newly hatched chicks to indigenous healthy chick feces  early on, they will have less of a chance to get infected because of  competitive exclusion o Proper food handling  Cross contamination o Control antibiotic use in agricultural and agricultural practices Escherichia coli  G­, facultative anaerobe, motile rods  Most strains are nonpathogenic o Small population is pathogenic  Serological classification o Serogroup (O) based on O antigen of LPS (lipopolysaccharides) – where E. coli  O157:H7 comes from  LPS: protects G­ bacteria between inner and outer membranes   Serotype (H) – dependent on flagella type  Serotype (K) – based on capsule antigen  Virotypes of pathogenic E. coli o EPEC  Enteropathogenic E. coli  Diarrheal  Infantile – fatal  Traveler’s diarrhea in adults  Patchy pattern to host cells  Effects due to damage   Very invasive of human cells  No toxins produced o EAggEC   Eneroaggregative E. coli  Persistant diarrhea in children  Binds small intestinal cells – not invasive  Clumps in aggregates on mucosa  Enterotoxins  Enteroaggregative heat­stable toxin  Hemolysin – forms pores on blood cells/lyses them o ETEC  Enterotoxigenic E. coli  Cause diarrhea, no major histological changes, no invasion  Virulence factors  Adhesion  Enterotoxin: heat­labile toxin and heat stable toxin o EHEC  Enterohemorrhagic E. coli  Caused by E. coli O157:H7, O26:H11,   Hemorrhagic colitis  Hemolyticalis uremic syndrome (HUS)  Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpurea (TTP)  Adhesions  Shiga toxins (Stx) or verotoxins  Blood diarrhea  Invasion of cells o E. coli O157:h7  Characteristics  Inability to grow at temps > 44.5*C  Inability to product b­glucuronidase  Possession of an attaching and effacing (eae) gene, shiga toxin  (stx) toxins, 60 Mda plasmid  Acid tolerance  Low infective dose –est. 10 cells  ~63,153 cases, 2,138 hospitalizations, and 20 deaths  Symptoms  Incubation period: 3­4 days  Nonbloody diarrhea  Reservoirs  Cattle/other ruminants  Domestic animals and wildlife: dogs, horses, swine, cats, seagulls,  and rats  Humans  Water, soil, and animal feces Animals are carriers, and during processing if you don’t clean the meat well then it carries over  and stays in the meat.  Foods implicated in E. coli O157:H7 outbreaks   Undercooked ground beef o Ground beef mixes the pathogen into the meat, meaning the inside of the burger will be contaminated as well as the  outside o Pink inside is not safe  Vegetables, salad bars  Apple cider/juice  Bean sprouts  Fermented dry salami  Control of E. coli O157:H7  Food producing animals o Vaccine: bacterial extract by Epitopix o Competitive exclusion  Water treatment o One animal sick contaminates other animals through water  trough in the pasture  Avoid fecal contamination  Proper food handling o Don’t leave at room temp for too long  Intervention technology such as irradiation Human Noroviruses  Norovirus is a 32 nm +sense RNA virus o Means its super small (bacteria is 1,000 nm avg)  Belongs to the family Caliciviridae o Includes human Sapporo virus  Widespread in children, not super serious  First identified after an outbreak of gastroenteritis in Norwalk, Ohio in 1972  Structure o Non­enveloped enteric virus o Genome contains 3 Open Reading Frames (ORF)   Relevance o Leading cause of foodborne gastroenteritis  Acquired through aerosol – droplets? o Outbreaks are most commonly associated with   Nursing homes  Schools  Catered events  Cruise ships  Consumption of raw seafood  Transmission o Fecal or vomitus­oral route  Symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals shed the virus in their feces  for up to 2 weeks after symptoms subside (longer in immunocompromised inidivudals)  Vomitus can spread the virus as well o Person to person – majority 66.1% o Foodborne – 25.9% o Environmental – 0.3% o Waterborne – 0.2%  High risk food o Fresh produce/seafood  Environment they are grown in increases risk of coming into contact with  contamination via water/food handlers  Often eaten raw o Fresh produce:   Makeup of outer surface can lead to increased chance of harboring  pathogens  Also decreases decontamination capabilities  Pathogenesis/infection o Low infectious dose  o Overnight incubation time o +sense strand of genome RNA serves as mRNA upon entering the cell, binding to the ribosomes and translating proteins such as viral polymerase  o Incubation time of about 24­48 h o Causes gastroenteritis,  o Symptoms include vomiting and diarrhea, with or without  nausea and abdominal  cramps o Self­limiting in healthy adults lasting 24­72 h  o Possible fatal infection in immunocompromised, young and elderly populations  mainly due to dehydration  Treatment o Vaccines   VLP  Mainly uses capsid proteins VP1 with or without adjuvant  Protrusion particle  Uses the protrusion (P portion of capsid protein )  Vector borne   Used to generate live attenuated vaccines by using other viruses   Problem with vaccines is that not enough immunity is expressed  Many different genotypes and groups  o Antiviral Drugs  None currently   Some in the works would target the binding of HuNov to human HBGA  Persistance o Persistence in the environment is one of the leading causes of on­going outbreaks  leading to outbreaks continuing for up to 6 months  o Lack of envelope grants resistance to environmental factors like pH, temperature,  and humidity  o On hands  When inoculated with Norovirus RNA viral titer drops by ca. 0.25 log and remains stable through 120 min of testing o Foods  Survived for 10 days on RTE refrigerated foods with no reduction in viral  titer  o Surfaces   Can persist for up to 28 days on food preparation surfaces before viral titer starts to decrease o In water  Persisted for more than 2 months in artificially inoculated water at ­20, 4,  and 25 C  Decontamination/Inactivation


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