Nutrition for Health
Nutrition for Health
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This 4 page Reader was uploaded by Brittnee Zuckerman on Thursday April 17, 2014. The Reader belongs to a course at University of California Santa Barbara taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 145 views.
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Date Created: 04/17/14
ESS 3 NUTRITION FOR HEALTH Spring Quarter 2014 414 Glycemic Index Vs Glycemic Load RDA and AMDR for Carbohydrate RDA of Carbohydrate is based on the amount of glucose the brain uses Current RDA for adults age 19 and older is 130 gramsday This amount does not cover the amount of carbohydrate needed to support daily activities AMDR for carbohydrates is 45 to 65 of total energy intake Most carbohydrates you eat each day should be ber rich and unprocessed Eat the recommended amount of whole grains and fruits and vegetables Added sugar intake should be 25 less of total energy intake each day Consume at least 2 of all grains as whole grains Limit re ned grains and grains that contain solid fats added sugars and sodium Limit intake of 100 juice for children Refined Carbohydrate Americas consume too many simple sugars o 1 Added sugars sugars and syrups that are added to food during processing or preparation high fructose com syrup 0 2 Nutritive sweeteners sweeteners such as sucrose fructose honey and brown sugar that contribute calories 0 3 Nonnutritive sweeteners manufactured sweeteners that prove little or no energy altemative sweeteners o 4 Most common source of added sugars in the US is in sodas and soft drinks Sodas and Soft Drinks Most common source of added sugars in the US is in sodas and soft drinks Americans drink an average of 40 gallons per person each year One 12oz cola contains 385 grams of sugar almost 10 teaspoons Dietary Sugar Americans consume an average 156 pound of sugar each year Huge source of sugar in cereal Sugars empty calories Alternative Sweeteners Altemative nonnutritive sweeteners Safe for adults children and people with diabetes within FDA guidelines ADI acceptable daily intake estimates of the amount of sweetener that someone can consume each day without adverse effects Sugar free does not mean calorie free V 39gt5 t Using arti cial sweeteners foes not prevent weight gain Saccharin used in foods beverages Sweet N low AcesulfameK 175 times sweeter than sugar Aspartame most popular alternative sweetener Sucralose 600 times sweeter than sugars Neotame Stevia Simple Vs Complex Carbs 416 Diabetes Forms Type 1 Diabetes Diabetes Mellitus The form of diabetes in which the body cannot produce enough insulin Cause is unknown Usually diagnosed around 1014 years old Only treatment is insulin injection lncurable Type 2 Diabetes Insulin resistant The form of diabetes in which body cells progressively become less responsive to insulin or the body does not produce enough insulin May be more severe however it is treatable Obesity is often the trigger Body cells become resistant or less responsive to insulin Risk factors metabolic syndrome A waist circumference greater than 35 inches for women and 40 inches for men Elevated blood pressure Unhealthful levels of certain blood lipids Abnormally high blood glucose levels Most cases develop after the age of 45 23 of Americans over 60 have Type 2 Diabetes Disease is increasing among children and adolescents posing serious health consequences More than 6 of US college students have prediabetes and every year 3700 Americans under 20 are diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes Lifestyle related chronic disease Type 2 diabetes can be treated o Losing weight 0 Healthful eating pattems o Exercising regularly o Medications to improve the sensitivity of body cells to insulin or reduce the amount of glucose the liver produces 0 Daily insulin injections Decrease risk of Type 2 Diabetes 0 Eat a balanced diet with whole grains fruits legumes vegetables Fats Essential Energy Supplying Nutrients Chapter Objectives Discuss the function of fats in the human body Distinguish between bene cial and harmful types of dietary fat Leam about how much fat you need in your diet Understand the relationship between different types of dietary fat and the risk for heart disease What are fats Fats are groups of substances called Lipids They are insoluble do not dissolve in water Fats and oils 3 types of lipids that are found in food 0 Triglycerides o Phospholipids o Sterols 95 of the fat we eat is in the form of triglycerides Triglycerides A molecule consisting of 3 fatty acids attached to a 3carbon glycerol backbone Fatty acid long chains of carbon atoms bound to each other as well as to hydrogen They contain an acid group at one end Glycerol the backbone of a triglyceride molecule an alcohol composed of 3 carbon atoms Saturated and unsaturated Fatty acids can differ in 0 Length of their carbon chain I Short medium or longchain 0 Level of saturation Saturated fatty acids have hydrogen atoms surrounding every carbon in the chain Monounsaturated fatty acids lack hydrogen atoms in only one region Polyunsaturated fatty acids lack hydrogen atoms in multiple locations Structure of trigylcerides Molecules of saturated fat have no double carbon bonds and don t form a kink in their structure Hydrogenation the addition of hydrogen atoms to unsaturated fatty acids refers to the number of hydrogen atoms 0 Converts liquid fats oils into a more solid form 0 Used to create margarine from oils 0 Often creates trans fatty acids Saturated Fat Contain the Maximum amount of hydrogen A long chain of carbon atoms bonded to other carbon atoms and to hydrogen atoms A fatty acid with no double carbon bonds and saturated with hydrogen Saturated fats butter lard cream whole milk cheeses beef coconut oil and palm oil Saturated fats are solid at room temperature Unsaturated Fats A chain of fatty acids that contains doublebonded carbons Monounsaturated fatty acid MUFA a fatty acid chain that has 1 carbon double bond olive oil canola oil cashews Polyunsaturated fatty acid PUFA fatty acids that have more than one double bond in the chain canola com and saf ower oil Trans Fats Developed through a process called hydrogenation o the process of adding hydrogen to unsaturated fatty acids making them more saturated and more solid at room temperature Hydrogenation straightens out the chains making the liquid fat more solid and resist acidity Trans fats are more detrimental to our health then saturated fats because they change cell functioning and make it more difficult to remove cholesterol from the blood FDA requires food labels to list the amount of trans fat per serving FDA allows products with less than 1 gram of trans fat to claim O trans fat on the label Check the label for partially hydrogenated oils trans fat
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