Infancy chapter 12
Infancy chapter 12 Psyc3260
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Caoimhe Notetaker on Sunday April 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc3260 at Tulane University taught by Dr. Bourgeois in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Infancy in Psychlogy at Tulane University.
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Date Created: 04/24/16
Ch. 12: the effects of the infancy period of the formation of individual differences 04/17/2016 ▯ Complex dynamic process No single factor predicts later outcomes Development is multifactorial process No two individuals respond the same to the same factors ▯ Infant and parental factors LBW- more passive, less attentive, less securely attached VLBW- continuing motor, social, cognitive, and attention deficits Early visual impairment slower development in all domains Early onset teratogens- continuous with later disorders Environment can provide buffering Infant have self-righting ability In first 2-3 years extra motor stimulation does not contribute to lasting individual differences unless infant is @ risk o In pre-k and later practice does improve skill level Cultural can have a great impact on social/ emotional processes o Sharing, empathy, self-disclosure o Gender-specific behaviors o Collectivist v. individualistic o Variability within cultures also Exposure to enriched environments increased problem solving ability Verbal interaction is the strongest predictor of later language competence Environmental and informational processing during infancy plays a role in later intelligence Parental contributions o Maternal employment and child care Affected by mothers desire to work a d quality of child care o Attachment Matters long term (consistent) o Care diving and discipline styles Guided participation and authoritative is best Effect of risk and disadvantage Poverty results in consistent negative outcomes with little mediating factors o Increase depression, poor peer relations, social withdrawal, and low self-esteem o Increased physical ailments, school problems, aggression and language and cognitive deficits Stress due to poverty, disease separation, family change, relocation, death, social unrest, natural disaster, migration ▯ Resilience and adaptability 5-6 million cases of child abuses and neglect are reported Abusive parents- o Fewer positive emotions, interact with child less, more likely to use coercion/ corporal punishment, talk to child less o Less adept at verbal skills, reduced capacity for planning and impulse control Maltreated children show more anger frustration and opposition o Deficits in cognition, memory, attentions, impulse control and emotion regulation o More disorganized attachment o Deregulated HPA axis and cortisol levels o Higher sympathetic nervous system activation Institutionalized children showed severe deficits when institutionalized > 6 months o Socioeconomic deprivation is crucial factor in poor outcomes ▯ Interventions Infant parent mental health o Multi-disciplinary mental health specialization o Relational context for total development o Dynamic stems model of development o Attachment and psychotherapy approaches Internal working model o The parent child relationship is the client o Reduction in caregiver scapegoating o Reflective supervision A home within- support to long-term foster care children Circle of sec- 20 week intervention focused on attachment ▯ ▯
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