Biological Basis of Psychology
Biological Basis of Psychology
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Date Created: 04/17/14
PSYCH 3 THE BIOLOGICAL BASIS OF PSYCHOLOGY Spring Quarter 2014 48 No Class 410 Neuroanatomy The Gray Matter Each layer consists of different cell types Some layers receive information and process it Other layers send information following processing In most cortex the cells responding to a certain type of information are arranged in columns columnar organization Different parts of the cortex have a different organization of the layers typically 6 layers Motor cortex sends information to the muscles lots of output may have an area that is thicker than other layers such as the association cortex Cytoarchitectonics by Brodmann 1909 Areas mapped out how these cortex differed based on these layers and assumed that they function for different areas The White Matter Long fibrous material Runs through the think layer cortex to the rest of the brain Mostly axons fibers that transmit information to other neurons Myelinated helps to transmit signal whiteish appearance Very important for brain function Ventricles of the Brain Cavities that are holding cerebral spinal uid Keeps the brain safe Brain is oating around within this cerebral spinal uid in the skull Blood supply to the brain Brain depends on constant ow of oxygen Brain uses a lot of energy Brain makes up of about 2 3 mass in body but uses much more Metabolism of the brain is extremely high Brain is always working Must have a constant supply of brain to bring more oxygen Anterior cerebral artery Middle cerebral artery Posterior cerebral artery Stroke a disorder of blood vessels either a block or a rupture that destroys or cripples particular brain regions BloodBrain barrier protects the brain from some substances that may be found in the brain The first trick is to try to get into the blood brain barrier for people creating anti drugs such as anti psychotic anti depression etc Neurons Main function is to communicate information through an electrical chemical process Seizure the synchronized excitation of large groups of nerve cells evident in electroencephalography EEG as an abnormal pattern of brain activity Electrical signal has a high frequency but low aptitude Electrical activity has high aptitude low frequency wave signals occur when someone is going through a seizure Watched video of man having seizure Hitting the hippocampus triggered the seizure as well as brought back an old memory Neuronal communication is an electrochemical process Electrical due to the movement of ions through a neuron Chemical due to the exchange of neurotransmitters between neurons The Neuron Cell body or soma contains a cell nucleus Dendrite one of extensions of the cell body that receives inputs from other neurons Axon a single extension from the nerve cell that carries nerve impulses from the cell body to other neurons Axon terminal the end of an axon or axon collateral which forms a synapse on another neuron Motor neurons many extensions Structure and quality of size of neurons vary between human cortexes Multipolar neuron most common in the brain Take information from another neuron and pass it to another neuron Have many different dendrites that receive information and then a single axon that communicates information Bipolar neuron two extensions 9 one extension makes up the dendrites the other makes up the axon Unipolar neuron least common 9 only one extension that then branches off to axon and dendrites In terms of communication overview of neuronal communication 1 A presynaptic and postsynaptic neuron at rest 2 Presynaptic neuron prior to the synapse This communicated to the postsynaptic neuron by releasing neurotransmitters across the synapse Fires electrical signal down the axon till it hits the axon terminal that releases neurotransmitters that then ow down the synapse and some of the neurotransmitters connect with the dendrites on the postsynaptic neuron 3 Postsynaptic after the synapse Receptors in the dendrite of the postsynaptic neuron receive the neurotransmitters depolarizing the membrane cell wall 4 If the depolarization is strong enough then it spreads down the dendrite and across the cell body integrating with signals from other dendrites at the axon hillock 5 If the depolarization reaches a critical threshold at the axon hillock then an action potential is conducted down the axon 6 Once the action potential reaches the axon terminal it releases neurotransmitters into the synapse transmitting a signal to other neurons Visualizing Neurons Dye fills the entire neuron so one can see all the parts and it39s easier to see abnormalities in shape and connectivity Golgi stain oldest method of injecting dye to fill the entire neuron so we can see all the parts It is easier to see abnormalities in shape and connectivity fluorescent dye Nissl stain highlights the cell body only but it makes it easier to visualize the organization of a collection of neurons in a given brain region It is easier to spot missing neurons or a disorganized group of neurons Clarity new technique video of transparent mouse brain Cell BodySoma Nucleus contains DNA Mitochondria aerobic energy release Endoplasmic reticulum synthesizes proteins and fats Ribosomes a substructure of the ER that synthesizes proteins Golgi complex packages molecules in vesicles Microtubules rapidly transports material through the neuron Cell membrane outer layering of the cell Selectively permeable Lipid Bilayer two layers of linked fatty molecules within which specialized proteins oat One important type of membrane spanning protein is called an ion channel Axons carry electrical information from the cell body to the axon terminal Electrical information is integrated at the axon hillock Axons may be short within the brain or very long from brain down spinal cord Axons may be wrapped in myelin fatty tissue which speeds up the signal Some axons may have branches called axon collaterals Axon Terminal The terminal contains vesicles small packages filled with neurotransmitters When an electrical impulse from the axon reaches the terminal the neurotransmitters are released into the synapse Terminals may communicate directly to the dendrites cell bodies or dendritic spines Neurons can have multiple axon terminals Dendrites The many extensions from the cell body and the multiple branches of each extension allow the neuron to receive inputs from many other neurons Dendrites contain many dendritic spines where incoming neurons make contact Dendrites contain receptors specialized to receive certain neurotransmitters Where chemical inputs are transformed into electrical information and sent to the cell body Synapse An axon terminal making contact with a dendritic spine Neurotransmitters ow across the gap between presynaptic and postsynaptic neurons Glial Cells Glia is the Greek word for glue Glial cells provide structure and support for neurons and they may modulate function 90 of the cells in the brain are glial cells neurons make up only 10 4 types 0 Astrocytes Star shaped cells with numerous processes that run in all directions The extensions of astrocytes provide structural support for the brain and they provide a roll in the passage of chemicals from the blood to the neurons big glial cells main support like a scaffolder passing information from bloodstream into the neuron Provide two functions May be important to the metabolism of the neurons themselves Neurons are communicated bits of information Glial cells are supporting that communication Microglial Extremely small cells that remove cellular debris from injured or dead cells takes away the waste of the neurons and disposes of them
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