NUTRI 2000 Chapter 8 Notes
NUTRI 2000 Chapter 8 Notes Nutrition 2000
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Chapter 8: Vitamins Section 8.1: Vitamins—Vital Dietary Components • Vitamins: essential organic compounds which are needed in a person’s diet in small amounts to help regulate and support chemical processes. - The body requires 1 ounce of vitamins for every 150 pounds of food eaten. - There are 2 classes of vitamins: fat soluble and water soluble vitamins o Fat soluble vitamins: vitamins that dissolve in fat, but not readily in water. Include vitamins A, D, E, and K. o Water soluble vitamins: vitamins that dissolve in water. Include vitamins B and C. - Since the body cannot make vitamins, you need to get it from your diet. - In order for a vitamin to be classified as a vitamin, it has to meet these few criteria: 1) The body cannot make a sufficient quantity to maintain health. 2) If it is not in the diet, there can be health deficiencies. § Vitamin deficiency related diseases include scurvy (vitamin C deficiency) and rickets (vitamin D deficiency). ∗ Megadose: when you intake a nutrient beyond it’s need to prevent a deficiency. v Absorption and Storage of Vitamins in the Body • Fat-soluble vitamins are absorbed with dietary fats and then travel as chylomicrons through the blood. Carriers in the bloodstream then help distribute out the vitamins to. - These are mostly stored in the liver and fatty tissues. - 40-90% of fat-soluble vitamins are absorbed. • Water-soluble vitamins get broken down from their coenzyme forms into free vitamins in the stomach and small intestine - About 50-90% of water soluble vitamins are absorbed, so therefore the have a high bioavailability o Bioavailability: the point to which an indigested nutrient is digested and absorbed and is then available for the body. - Water-soluble vitamins are excreted based on how full the tissue vitamin stores are full, which is known as tissue saturation. - Coenzyme: a compound that combines with an inactive enzyme to form an active one. v Vitamin Toxicity • If you consume more water-soluble vitamins that RDA and AI require, then the kidney filters it out of the blood and they are excreted through urine. • Vitamins B-12 and B-6 are water soluble, but can become toxic. - These are stored in the liver. • Consuming excessive amounts of vitamins doesn’t give you more energy, but it can cause problems. v Preservation of Vitamins in Foods • The riper a food item is, the more vitamins it has. • There is vitamin loss in the food from the time it is picked up, to the time its eaten, so make sure to eat it as soon as possible. • Freezing fruits and veggies can help preserve the nutrients after they have been freshly picked. Section 8.2: Vitamins A (Retinoid) and Carotenoids • 90% of vitamin A is stored in the liver, and the rest is stored in the kidneys, adipose tissue, and lungs. • Retinoids: exist in animal products and are known as “preformed” vitamin A. - Retinol: alcohol form of vitamin A. o When this is stored, it attaches to fatty acid to become a retinyl. - Retinal: aldehyde form of vitamin A. - Retinoic acid: acid form of vitamin A. • Carotenoids: phytochemicals that are good for humans. v Functions of Vitamin A and Carotenoids • Vitamin A helps in maintain epithelial cell health. • Hyperkeratosis: a condition due to vitamin A deficiency in which skin cells produce too much keratin resulting in a toad skin appearance. • Being vitamin A deficient can cause an increased infection rate. • The higher amount of carotenoid consumption, the lower risk a person has of age related macro degeneration. - Macular degeneration: a condition, which leads to burred vision. • Vitamin A helps in the prevention of cardiovascular disease and growth/development. • Diets rich in vitamin A reduce risks of breast, lung, bladder, and skin cancer. v Vitamin A Deficiency • If a person is vitamin A deficient, then their eyes cant adjust quickly enough to light change. • If vitamin A deficiencies go on for a long time, the cornea loses its ability to produce mucus, which causes xerophthalmia. - Xerophthalmia: drying of the surface of the eye. • People who eat few fruits and veggies, alcoholics, or people with liver diseases are all at risk for being vitamin A deficient. v Avoiding Too Much Vitamin A and Carotenoids • If the vitamin A intake exceeds the UL recommendations, then your liver can get affected. • Fetal malformations can happen if the vitamin A intake is higher than it should be. • If the intake of vitamin A contains large amounts of carotenoids, then consuming too much of it is not harmful. Section 8.3: Vitamins D (Calciferol or Calcitriol) • Vitamin D is the only vitamin that is a hormone and is also the only vitamin that can be produced in the skin when exposed to the sun. • There are many factors that affect how much vitamin D is absorbed—time of day, dark skin pigmentation, the amount of clothing a person is wearing, weather conditions, etc. • Aging reduces the amount of how much vitamin D the body can synthesize. v Functions of Vitamin D • Vitamin D functions to maintain the amounts of calcium and phosphorus in the blood. • It also helps in gene expression and cell growth and helps in reducing cancer risks. v Vitamin D Deficiency • If vitamin D levels are low in the blood, then the small intestine can only absorb 10-15% of calcium from the diet. If the levels are adequate, 30-40% is absorb by the small intestine. • Vitamin D deficiency in early childhood is known as rickets. • The adult version of rickets is known as osteomalacia, which means soft bone. • People that are older than 60 years, have dark skin, are rarely outdoors, and have chronic kidney disease are more at risk to be vitamin D deficient. v Getting Enough Vitamin D • There are 2 forms of vitamin D—vitamin D2 and vitamin D3. - Vitamin D2 is found in non-animal sources, like mushrooms. - Vitamin D3 is synthesized in the body. • Sunlight is the best source of vitamin D. • To get the UL of vitamin D, you need to spend 10 minutes in the sun with arms and legs exposed. • You can never overdose on vitamin D. • There are very few foods that are high in vitamin D, fatty fish are considered the richest source. • Consuming an adequate amount supports bone growth. • Infants that are breastfed and not exposed to the sun enough, are at risk for getting rickets. • Adults that are over the age of 70 need more vitamin D exposure. v Avoiding Too Much Vitamin D • Too much vitamin D is dangerous for infants and children. • Vitamin D toxicity is not from too much exposure to the sun. Section 8.4: Vitamins E (Tocopherols) v Functions of Vitamin E • Vitamin E is an antioxidant that is found in adipose tissue and cell membrane lipid bilayers. • An increased intake of vitamin E reduces the risk of chronic diseases, however this has not been proven. • In animals, vitamin E is essential for fertility, but this is not the case in humans. v Vitamin E Deficiency • Preterm infants often have low vitamin E stores. • Smokers are at a risk of vitamin E deficiency, and this is because smoking destroys vitamin E in the lungs. • People on low fat diets are also at a risk of this deficiency. v Getting Enough Vitamin E • Plants only synthesize Vitamin E. • Salad oils, margarines, spreads, and shortening are what make up 2/3 of the vitamin E recommendation in the North American diet. • North Americans consume 2/3 of the RDA of vitamin E. v Avoiding Too Much Vitamin E • Vitamin E is stored in adipose tissue. • Excessive intakes of vitamin E can interfere with the clotting role of vitamin K Section 8.5: Vitamins K (Quinone) • Vitamin K is found in plants, plant oils, fish oils, and animal products. • It has 3 forms: phylloquione, menaquione, and menadione. v Functions of Vitamin K • Vitamin K acts as a cofactor in chemical reactions. • It plays a role in blood clotting. And bone health. v Vitamin K Deficiency • After birth. Vitamin K shots are given due to newborns not being able to produce enough vitamin K on their own. • People that take antibiotics for a long time are also at risk for deficiency. v Getting Enough Vitamin K • Green leafy vegetables, broccoli, asparagus, and peas are good sources of vitamin K. • Meats, eggs, and dairy are also good forms. • Vitamin K deficiencies can develop quickly if the dietary intake is poor. Section 8.6: The Water Soluble Vitamins and Choline • Most water-soluble vitamins are excreted from the body, and any extra is excreted in the urine or stool. • B vitamins are thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, biotin, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, and folate. Choline is also one, but not considered a vitamin. • B vitamins are important in metabolism. • Deficiency symptoms start in the brain, nervous system, and GI tract. v B Vitamin Intakes of North Americans • B vitamins are packed in most foods, especially fortified cereals, which have 1+ B vitamins. • Deficiencies are more common in developing countries than in North America. • Excess ends up in the urine or stool. • Deficiency of this vitamin leads to fatigue. v B Vitamins in Grains • White flour from wheat has a low amount of B vitamins, due to the loss of them during the process of making the flour. Section 8.7: Thiamin (Vitamin B-1) v Functions of Thiamin • Thiamin was the first water soluble vitamin that was discovered. • It helps energy be released from the carbs you eat. v Thiamin Deficiency • Beriberi: thiamin deficiency that causes muscle weakness, edema, loss of appetite, and nerve degeneration. - Occurs when the lack of thiamin causes the glucose to not be metabolized to release energy. • Alcohol abuse can cause an increase in the chance of having a thiamin deficiency. v Getting Enough Thiamin • Adults with low income and elderly people barely meet their thiamin requirements. • Pork, whole grains, cereals, peanuts, dried beans, and seeds all have a good amount of thiamin in them. Section 8.8: Riboflavin (Vitamin B-2) v Functions of Riboflavin • Riboflavin helps in the breakdown of fatty acids, and is needed by some metabolic processes of vitamins and minerals. It also has an antioxidant role. v Riboflavin Deficiency • When a person has a riboflavin deficiency, the symptoms they experience are: mouth and tongue inflammation, dermatitis, cheilosis, and eye problems. v Getting Enough Riboflavin • The average daily intakes are a little bit above RDA. • Riboflavin megadoses are not toxic; therefore, there is no UL set. • Veggies, milk products, cereals, enriched grains, eggs, and meat are all good riboflavin sources. Section 8.9: Niacin (Vitamin B-3) v Functions of Niacin • Niacin has two compounds that it functions throughout the body as: nicotinic acid and nicotinamide. • Nicotinic acid is a natural way to lower blood lipids and LDL cholesterol, but due to certain side effects one should not do it. v Niacin Deficiency • There are many problems that can occur if the body is deficient in niacin. • Pellagra: a disease due to being niacin deficient that causes dementia, diarrhea, dermatitis, and even death. v Getting Enough Niacin • Adults usually take in double the RDA recommendation for niacin. • Pellagra is now associated with chronic alcoholism. • Tuna, poultry, peanuts, and cereal are all good niacin sources v Avoiding Too Much Niacin • Niacin mega doses can be toxic. • Niacin toxicity side effects are: headache, itching, and increased blood flow. Section 8.10: Vitamin B-6 (Pyridoxine) v Functions of Vitamin B-6 • Vitamin B-6 coenzymes are needed for fat, carb, and protein metabolism. • Vitamin B-6 also plays a role in the synthesis of neurotransmitters and the heme part of hemoglobin. v Vitamin B-6 Deficiency • Vitamin B-6 deficiency would affect many systems like the cardiovascular, nervous, and immune systems, also overall body metabolism. • Since alcohol decreases the absorption of vitamin B-6, alcoholics can become easily deficient. v Getting Enough Vitamin B-6 • Animal products, fruits, veggies, and cereals are great vitamin B-6 sources. • Since North Americans consume loads of meat already, the vitamin B-6 consumption is higher than the RDA. v Avoiding Too Much Vitamin B-6 • Too much vitamin B-6 can cause nerve damage, so that is the point the UL for it is set for. • Walking difficulties, tingling in the feet and hands are all signs of vitamin B-6 toxicity. Section 8.11: Pantothenic Acid (Vitamin B-5) and Biotin (Vitamin B-7) v Pantothenic Acid • Pantothenic acid is required for the synthesis of a coenzyme that assists in the energy release of carbs, lipids, and fats. • A nutrient deficient diet and alcoholics are both at risk for deficiency. • The average consumption exceeds the AI. • Sunflower seeds, peanuts, and eggs are all great sources. v Biotin • Biotin assists in the synthesis of glucose and fatty acids along with the breaking down of amino acids. • Symptoms of deficiency include: decreased appetite, nausea, vomiting, anemia, and depression. • Protein rich foods are a great source of biotin. • Biotin deficiencies are unlikely since the bacteria in the intestines synthesize the biotin that you can absorb. • Biotin is nontoxic, so there is no UL set for it. Section 8.12: Folate (Vitamin B-9) v Functions of Folate • Folate helps in forming DNA and metabolizing amino acids. • Since folate aids in the synthesis of DNA, there is research going on to see if it could be helpful in preventing/curing cancer. • It also helps in the formation of brain neurotransmitters. v Folate Deficiency • If a person is folate deficient, then their red blood cells cannot synthesize and divide to form new DNA. • Red blood cells are what clinicians use to determine a deficiency. • Inflamed tongue, diarrhea, poor growth, and depression are all signs of being deficient. • Folate deficiency in the maternal stage can cause neural tube defects, to the fetus. • Older people are at risk for a deficiency, due to decreased absorption of the vitamin. v Getting Enough Folate • Green leafy vegies, orange juice, dried beans, and organ meats are all great sources. • Folate can be destroyed through oxygen and heat. • Pregnant women need more folate than others. • Folic acid, B-12, and B-6 supplements help in lowering homocysteine and decreasing risks of heart disease and stroke. v Avoiding Too Much Folate • Large doses of folate can hide the deficiency of vitamin B-12, which makes diagnosing harder. • FDA limits folic acid supplements for pregnant women. Section 8.13: Vitamin B-12 (Cobalamin or Cyanocobalamin) • Vitamin B-12 structure is the largest out of all of the vitamins. • It can be stored in the liver for a long time, so deficiencies take a while to happen. • R-proteins: secreted and produced by salivary glands which bind to B-12 to protect it from the stomach acid. • Intrinsic factor: enhances B-12 absorption in the ileum. • Most of any B-12 deficiency cases are due to absorption problems. v Functions of Vitamin B-12 • Helps in folate metabolism, in which it converts folate coenzymes into active forms. • Helps in maintaining the myelin sheath. v Vitamin B-12 Deficiency • Pernicious anemia: the result of a vitamin B-12 deficiency, due to absorption problems of the vitamin. Can cause paralysis and even death. • Not eating enough of the vitamin is not the cause of deficiency; it is the mal- absorption of the vitamin that causes a person to become deficient. v Getting Enough Vitamin B-12 • Organ meats, cereal, milk, and eggs are all great sources of vitamin B-12. • B-12 is more readily absorbed in food form. • Adults consume 2 times the RDA, there is no UL set. Section 8.14: Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid) v Functions of Vitamin C • Helps in synthesizing collagen, which is found in bone, teeth, connective tissue, and tendons. • It helps in forming other compounds like carnatine and neurotransmitters, along with acting as an antioxidant, helping in iron absorption, and keeping up immune function. v Vitamin C Deficiency • Scurvy: a disease due to the deficiency of vitamin C which causes bleeding gums, tooth loss, and scaly skin. v Getting Enough Vitamin C • Citrus fruits, green peppers, strawberries, and cauliflower are good sources. • Vitamin C is easily lost through cooking and processing. • Americans meet the required dietary amount for vitamin C. v Avoiding Too Much Vitamin C • Regular, excessive over consumption of vitamin C can cause inflammation and diarrhea. Section 8.15: Choline and Other Vitamin-Like Compounds v Functions of Choline • Choline plays many important roles in the body - Helps in the cell membrane structure - Single carbon metabolism - Nerve function - Brain development - Lipid transportation v Getting Enough Choline • Choline is found in many food sources like soybeans, egg yolks, beef, almonds, and cauliflower. • Eggs with their yolks (whole eggs) are the best source. • Fewer than 10% of Americans meet their AI for choline. • AI for choline increases during pregnancy. v Avoiding Too Much Choline • Exceeding the UL for choline will result in fish body odor and low blood pressure. v Other Vitamin-Like Compounds • There are many other vitamin like compounds like carnatine, inositol, taurine, and lipoic acid. - Carnatine: helps in transporting fatty acids into the mitochondria. - Inositol: a part of the cell membrane. - Taurine: a part of bile acids. - Lipoic acid: an antioxidant and helps in metabolizing carbs. Section 8.16: Dietary Supplements—Who Needs Them? • A supplement is a product that contains one or more vitamins, minerals, herbs, amino acids, or dietary substances to supplement the diet. • People take supplements for many reasons - Reducing health problems. - Preventing heart attacks. - Preventing cancer. - Reducing stress. - Increasing energy. v Should You Take A Supplement • There are benefits for supplement consumption, but also risks like toxicity if taken too much. • Some supplements can interfere with medications.
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