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NUTRI 2000 Chapter 8 Notes

by: Amy Notetaker

NUTRI 2000 Chapter 8 Notes Nutrition 2000

Amy Notetaker
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These notes cover all of chapter 8 (vitamins).
Nutrition and Health
Dr. Katie Vines
Class Notes
nutrition, Vitamins
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amy Notetaker on Sunday April 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Nutrition 2000 at Auburn University taught by Dr. Katie Vines in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Nutrition and Health in Nutrition and Food Sciences at Auburn University.

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Date Created: 04/24/16
Chapter 8: Vitamins Section 8.1: Vitamins—Vital Dietary Components • Vitamins: essential organic compounds which are needed in a person’s diet in small amounts to help regulate and support chemical processes. - The body requires 1 ounce of vitamins for every 150 pounds of food eaten. - There are 2 classes of vitamins: fat soluble and water soluble vitamins o Fat soluble vitamins: vitamins that dissolve in fat, but not readily in water. Include vitamins A, D, E, and K. o Water soluble vitamins: vitamins that dissolve in water. Include vitamins B and C. - Since the body cannot make vitamins, you need to get it from your diet. - In order for a vitamin to be classified as a vitamin, it has to meet these few criteria: 1) The body cannot make a sufficient quantity to maintain health. 2) If it is not in the diet, there can be health deficiencies. § Vitamin deficiency related diseases include scurvy (vitamin C deficiency) and rickets (vitamin D deficiency). ∗ Megadose: when you intake a nutrient beyond it’s need to prevent a deficiency. v Absorption and Storage of Vitamins in the Body • Fat-soluble vitamins are absorbed with dietary fats and then travel as chylomicrons through the blood. Carriers in the bloodstream then help distribute out the vitamins to. - These are mostly stored in the liver and fatty tissues. - 40-90% of fat-soluble vitamins are absorbed. • Water-soluble vitamins get broken down from their coenzyme forms into free vitamins in the stomach and small intestine - About 50-90% of water soluble vitamins are absorbed, so therefore the have a high bioavailability o Bioavailability: the point to which an indigested nutrient is digested and absorbed and is then available for the body. - Water-soluble vitamins are excreted based on how full the tissue vitamin stores are full, which is known as tissue saturation. - Coenzyme: a compound that combines with an inactive enzyme to form an active one. v Vitamin Toxicity • If you consume more water-soluble vitamins that RDA and AI require, then the kidney filters it out of the blood and they are excreted through urine. • Vitamins B-12 and B-6 are water soluble, but can become toxic. - These are stored in the liver. • Consuming excessive amounts of vitamins doesn’t give you more energy, but it can cause problems. v Preservation of Vitamins in Foods • The riper a food item is, the more vitamins it has. • There is vitamin loss in the food from the time it is picked up, to the time its eaten, so make sure to eat it as soon as possible. • Freezing fruits and veggies can help preserve the nutrients after they have been freshly picked. Section 8.2: Vitamins A (Retinoid) and Carotenoids • 90% of vitamin A is stored in the liver, and the rest is stored in the kidneys, adipose tissue, and lungs. • Retinoids: exist in animal products and are known as “preformed” vitamin A. - Retinol: alcohol form of vitamin A. o When this is stored, it attaches to fatty acid to become a retinyl. - Retinal: aldehyde form of vitamin A. - Retinoic acid: acid form of vitamin A. • Carotenoids: phytochemicals that are good for humans. v Functions of Vitamin A and Carotenoids • Vitamin A helps in maintain epithelial cell health. • Hyperkeratosis: a condition due to vitamin A deficiency in which skin cells produce too much keratin resulting in a toad skin appearance. • Being vitamin A deficient can cause an increased infection rate. • The higher amount of carotenoid consumption, the lower risk a person has of age related macro degeneration. - Macular degeneration: a condition, which leads to burred vision. • Vitamin A helps in the prevention of cardiovascular disease and growth/development. • Diets rich in vitamin A reduce risks of breast, lung, bladder, and skin cancer. v Vitamin A Deficiency • If a person is vitamin A deficient, then their eyes cant adjust quickly enough to light change. • If vitamin A deficiencies go on for a long time, the cornea loses its ability to produce mucus, which causes xerophthalmia. - Xerophthalmia: drying of the surface of the eye. • People who eat few fruits and veggies, alcoholics, or people with liver diseases are all at risk for being vitamin A deficient. v Avoiding Too Much Vitamin A and Carotenoids • If the vitamin A intake exceeds the UL recommendations, then your liver can get affected. • Fetal malformations can happen if the vitamin A intake is higher than it should be. • If the intake of vitamin A contains large amounts of carotenoids, then consuming too much of it is not harmful. Section 8.3: Vitamins D (Calciferol or Calcitriol) • Vitamin D is the only vitamin that is a hormone and is also the only vitamin that can be produced in the skin when exposed to the sun. • There are many factors that affect how much vitamin D is absorbed—time of day, dark skin pigmentation, the amount of clothing a person is wearing, weather conditions, etc. • Aging reduces the amount of how much vitamin D the body can synthesize. v Functions of Vitamin D • Vitamin D functions to maintain the amounts of calcium and phosphorus in the blood. • It also helps in gene expression and cell growth and helps in reducing cancer risks. v Vitamin D Deficiency • If vitamin D levels are low in the blood, then the small intestine can only absorb 10-15% of calcium from the diet. If the levels are adequate, 30-40% is absorb by the small intestine. • Vitamin D deficiency in early childhood is known as rickets. • The adult version of rickets is known as osteomalacia, which means soft bone. • People that are older than 60 years, have dark skin, are rarely outdoors, and have chronic kidney disease are more at risk to be vitamin D deficient. v Getting Enough Vitamin D • There are 2 forms of vitamin D—vitamin D2 and vitamin D3. - Vitamin D2 is found in non-animal sources, like mushrooms. - Vitamin D3 is synthesized in the body. • Sunlight is the best source of vitamin D. • To get the UL of vitamin D, you need to spend 10 minutes in the sun with arms and legs exposed. • You can never overdose on vitamin D. • There are very few foods that are high in vitamin D, fatty fish are considered the richest source. • Consuming an adequate amount supports bone growth. • Infants that are breastfed and not exposed to the sun enough, are at risk for getting rickets. • Adults that are over the age of 70 need more vitamin D exposure. v Avoiding Too Much Vitamin D • Too much vitamin D is dangerous for infants and children. • Vitamin D toxicity is not from too much exposure to the sun. Section 8.4: Vitamins E (Tocopherols) v Functions of Vitamin E • Vitamin E is an antioxidant that is found in adipose tissue and cell membrane lipid bilayers. • An increased intake of vitamin E reduces the risk of chronic diseases, however this has not been proven. • In animals, vitamin E is essential for fertility, but this is not the case in humans. v Vitamin E Deficiency • Preterm infants often have low vitamin E stores. • Smokers are at a risk of vitamin E deficiency, and this is because smoking destroys vitamin E in the lungs. • People on low fat diets are also at a risk of this deficiency. v Getting Enough Vitamin E • Plants only synthesize Vitamin E. • Salad oils, margarines, spreads, and shortening are what make up 2/3 of the vitamin E recommendation in the North American diet. • North Americans consume 2/3 of the RDA of vitamin E. v Avoiding Too Much Vitamin E • Vitamin E is stored in adipose tissue. • Excessive intakes of vitamin E can interfere with the clotting role of vitamin K Section 8.5: Vitamins K (Quinone) • Vitamin K is found in plants, plant oils, fish oils, and animal products. • It has 3 forms: phylloquione, menaquione, and menadione. v Functions of Vitamin K • Vitamin K acts as a cofactor in chemical reactions. • It plays a role in blood clotting. And bone health. v Vitamin K Deficiency • After birth. Vitamin K shots are given due to newborns not being able to produce enough vitamin K on their own. • People that take antibiotics for a long time are also at risk for deficiency. v Getting Enough Vitamin K • Green leafy vegetables, broccoli, asparagus, and peas are good sources of vitamin K. • Meats, eggs, and dairy are also good forms. • Vitamin K deficiencies can develop quickly if the dietary intake is poor. Section 8.6: The Water Soluble Vitamins and Choline • Most water-soluble vitamins are excreted from the body, and any extra is excreted in the urine or stool. • B vitamins are thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, biotin, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, and folate. Choline is also one, but not considered a vitamin. • B vitamins are important in metabolism. • Deficiency symptoms start in the brain, nervous system, and GI tract. v B Vitamin Intakes of North Americans • B vitamins are packed in most foods, especially fortified cereals, which have 1+ B vitamins. • Deficiencies are more common in developing countries than in North America. • Excess ends up in the urine or stool. • Deficiency of this vitamin leads to fatigue. v B Vitamins in Grains • White flour from wheat has a low amount of B vitamins, due to the loss of them during the process of making the flour. Section 8.7: Thiamin (Vitamin B-1) v Functions of Thiamin • Thiamin was the first water soluble vitamin that was discovered. • It helps energy be released from the carbs you eat. v Thiamin Deficiency • Beriberi: thiamin deficiency that causes muscle weakness, edema, loss of appetite, and nerve degeneration. - Occurs when the lack of thiamin causes the glucose to not be metabolized to release energy. • Alcohol abuse can cause an increase in the chance of having a thiamin deficiency. v Getting Enough Thiamin • Adults with low income and elderly people barely meet their thiamin requirements. • Pork, whole grains, cereals, peanuts, dried beans, and seeds all have a good amount of thiamin in them. Section 8.8: Riboflavin (Vitamin B-2) v Functions of Riboflavin • Riboflavin helps in the breakdown of fatty acids, and is needed by some metabolic processes of vitamins and minerals. It also has an antioxidant role. v Riboflavin Deficiency • When a person has a riboflavin deficiency, the symptoms they experience are: mouth and tongue inflammation, dermatitis, cheilosis, and eye problems. v Getting Enough Riboflavin • The average daily intakes are a little bit above RDA. • Riboflavin megadoses are not toxic; therefore, there is no UL set. • Veggies, milk products, cereals, enriched grains, eggs, and meat are all good riboflavin sources. Section 8.9: Niacin (Vitamin B-3) v Functions of Niacin • Niacin has two compounds that it functions throughout the body as: nicotinic acid and nicotinamide. • Nicotinic acid is a natural way to lower blood lipids and LDL cholesterol, but due to certain side effects one should not do it. v Niacin Deficiency • There are many problems that can occur if the body is deficient in niacin. • Pellagra: a disease due to being niacin deficient that causes dementia, diarrhea, dermatitis, and even death. v Getting Enough Niacin • Adults usually take in double the RDA recommendation for niacin. • Pellagra is now associated with chronic alcoholism. • Tuna, poultry, peanuts, and cereal are all good niacin sources v Avoiding Too Much Niacin • Niacin mega doses can be toxic. • Niacin toxicity side effects are: headache, itching, and increased blood flow. Section 8.10: Vitamin B-6 (Pyridoxine) v Functions of Vitamin B-6 • Vitamin B-6 coenzymes are needed for fat, carb, and protein metabolism. • Vitamin B-6 also plays a role in the synthesis of neurotransmitters and the heme part of hemoglobin. v Vitamin B-6 Deficiency • Vitamin B-6 deficiency would affect many systems like the cardiovascular, nervous, and immune systems, also overall body metabolism. • Since alcohol decreases the absorption of vitamin B-6, alcoholics can become easily deficient. v Getting Enough Vitamin B-6 • Animal products, fruits, veggies, and cereals are great vitamin B-6 sources. • Since North Americans consume loads of meat already, the vitamin B-6 consumption is higher than the RDA. v Avoiding Too Much Vitamin B-6 • Too much vitamin B-6 can cause nerve damage, so that is the point the UL for it is set for. • Walking difficulties, tingling in the feet and hands are all signs of vitamin B-6 toxicity. Section 8.11: Pantothenic Acid (Vitamin B-5) and Biotin (Vitamin B-7) v Pantothenic Acid • Pantothenic acid is required for the synthesis of a coenzyme that assists in the energy release of carbs, lipids, and fats. • A nutrient deficient diet and alcoholics are both at risk for deficiency. • The average consumption exceeds the AI. • Sunflower seeds, peanuts, and eggs are all great sources. v Biotin • Biotin assists in the synthesis of glucose and fatty acids along with the breaking down of amino acids. • Symptoms of deficiency include: decreased appetite, nausea, vomiting, anemia, and depression. • Protein rich foods are a great source of biotin. • Biotin deficiencies are unlikely since the bacteria in the intestines synthesize the biotin that you can absorb. • Biotin is nontoxic, so there is no UL set for it. Section 8.12: Folate (Vitamin B-9) v Functions of Folate • Folate helps in forming DNA and metabolizing amino acids. • Since folate aids in the synthesis of DNA, there is research going on to see if it could be helpful in preventing/curing cancer. • It also helps in the formation of brain neurotransmitters. v Folate Deficiency • If a person is folate deficient, then their red blood cells cannot synthesize and divide to form new DNA. • Red blood cells are what clinicians use to determine a deficiency. • Inflamed tongue, diarrhea, poor growth, and depression are all signs of being deficient. • Folate deficiency in the maternal stage can cause neural tube defects, to the fetus. • Older people are at risk for a deficiency, due to decreased absorption of the vitamin. v Getting Enough Folate • Green leafy vegies, orange juice, dried beans, and organ meats are all great sources. • Folate can be destroyed through oxygen and heat. • Pregnant women need more folate than others. • Folic acid, B-12, and B-6 supplements help in lowering homocysteine and decreasing risks of heart disease and stroke. v Avoiding Too Much Folate • Large doses of folate can hide the deficiency of vitamin B-12, which makes diagnosing harder. • FDA limits folic acid supplements for pregnant women. Section 8.13: Vitamin B-12 (Cobalamin or Cyanocobalamin) • Vitamin B-12 structure is the largest out of all of the vitamins. • It can be stored in the liver for a long time, so deficiencies take a while to happen. • R-proteins: secreted and produced by salivary glands which bind to B-12 to protect it from the stomach acid. • Intrinsic factor: enhances B-12 absorption in the ileum. • Most of any B-12 deficiency cases are due to absorption problems. v Functions of Vitamin B-12 • Helps in folate metabolism, in which it converts folate coenzymes into active forms. • Helps in maintaining the myelin sheath. v Vitamin B-12 Deficiency • Pernicious anemia: the result of a vitamin B-12 deficiency, due to absorption problems of the vitamin. Can cause paralysis and even death. • Not eating enough of the vitamin is not the cause of deficiency; it is the mal- absorption of the vitamin that causes a person to become deficient. v Getting Enough Vitamin B-12 • Organ meats, cereal, milk, and eggs are all great sources of vitamin B-12. • B-12 is more readily absorbed in food form. • Adults consume 2 times the RDA, there is no UL set. Section 8.14: Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid) v Functions of Vitamin C • Helps in synthesizing collagen, which is found in bone, teeth, connective tissue, and tendons. • It helps in forming other compounds like carnatine and neurotransmitters, along with acting as an antioxidant, helping in iron absorption, and keeping up immune function. v Vitamin C Deficiency • Scurvy: a disease due to the deficiency of vitamin C which causes bleeding gums, tooth loss, and scaly skin. v Getting Enough Vitamin C • Citrus fruits, green peppers, strawberries, and cauliflower are good sources. • Vitamin C is easily lost through cooking and processing. • Americans meet the required dietary amount for vitamin C. v Avoiding Too Much Vitamin C • Regular, excessive over consumption of vitamin C can cause inflammation and diarrhea. Section 8.15: Choline and Other Vitamin-Like Compounds v Functions of Choline • Choline plays many important roles in the body - Helps in the cell membrane structure - Single carbon metabolism - Nerve function - Brain development - Lipid transportation v Getting Enough Choline • Choline is found in many food sources like soybeans, egg yolks, beef, almonds, and cauliflower. • Eggs with their yolks (whole eggs) are the best source. • Fewer than 10% of Americans meet their AI for choline. • AI for choline increases during pregnancy. v Avoiding Too Much Choline • Exceeding the UL for choline will result in fish body odor and low blood pressure. v Other Vitamin-Like Compounds • There are many other vitamin like compounds like carnatine, inositol, taurine, and lipoic acid. - Carnatine: helps in transporting fatty acids into the mitochondria. - Inositol: a part of the cell membrane. - Taurine: a part of bile acids. - Lipoic acid: an antioxidant and helps in metabolizing carbs. Section 8.16: Dietary Supplements—Who Needs Them? • A supplement is a product that contains one or more vitamins, minerals, herbs, amino acids, or dietary substances to supplement the diet. • People take supplements for many reasons - Reducing health problems. - Preventing heart attacks. - Preventing cancer. - Reducing stress. - Increasing energy. v Should You Take A Supplement • There are benefits for supplement consumption, but also risks like toxicity if taken too much. • Some supplements can interfere with medications.


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