PSY 260, Chapter 1 Notes
PSY 260, Chapter 1 Notes PSY 260
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Carmen Caruso on Sunday April 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 260 at University of Miami taught by Dr. Jill Kaplan in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Personality Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Miami.
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Date Created: 04/24/16
Ch. 1 What is Personality? Central Questions: 1. Who am I? 2. What is my future? 3. What is Personality? o Personality is the system that organizes the many psychological parts of our minds – our perceptions, memories, and emotions 4. What is the Field of Personality Psychology? o The field of personality psychology is the area of psychology relating to the study of personality. 5. Why Study Personality Psychology? o By studying personality, we figure stuff about ourselves and others. Great scholars turned to sciences to answer questions like What Is Life? Who Am I? Psychology is the scientific discipline concerned with how a person’s mind works. They study how a neuron works, how the eyes see, how the brain works, how language works Personality Psychology is a discipline within psychology that asks how our major mental systems – our motives, emotions, and thoughts – work together as a whole and what that means for a person’s life. AKA looking at a person comprehensively or Big Picture Perspective Science + Philosophy 800-200 BCE, Temple of Delphi – Ancient Greece erected to the god Apollo At entrance was “Know Thyself” Socrates loved self-knowledge Key to understanding how to treat others well is to know yourself, so “Who Am I?” is moral necessity Later thinkers saw that question of self understanding very hard, not just about wanting to know yourself By Middle Ages personality was mysterious – spirits and devils 1775 Father Johann Gassner said he could cure illnesses by expelling demons, used public demonstrations Scientific evidence then kicked out idea of possession Anton Mesmer discovered what he called “animal magnetism” or “animal gravity” Was a means of influencing others Hypnosis Performed cures like Gassner using this theory Only poorly understood, but opened the door to experiments of suggestibility and the unconscious 1819-1966 philosopher Schopenhauer – individuals as driven by blind instincts and deluded by own wills The will blocks out what is unpleasant and this may be responsible for mental illnesses Theory a century afterwards 1869 Eduard Von Hartmann published the “Philosophy of the Unconscious” examples of how people deceive themselves, surprise themselves basically non-conscious ideas against the conscious Implicit Personality Theory Bruner and Tagiuri (1954) Implicit Personality Theory describes our unstated assumptions and ideas about how people think and behave Many people recognize different types of people around them: the warm fuzzy type, the nerd, the jock They act differently with different people Knowing someone closely gives us predictions about how they will react and behave Most judgments are intuitive “what questions do you ask yourself when meeting a new person?” How and Why Are People Different? Ancient Greek guy Theophrastus – “Why is it that while all Greece lies under the same sky and all the Greeks are educated alike, it has befallen us to have characters variously constituted?” Characterology = a literary endeavor to describe the different sorts of individuals who exist Ex: a flatterer Writers talked in characters, and early physicians tried to explain science side of that Temperament = the physiologically based motivational and emotional styles people exhibit 4 Cent BCE – Greek physician Hippocrates and Galen developed 4-fold classification of personality Divided into 1. cholerics – tall, thin, easily irritated, holds grudges, too much yellow bile 2. melancholics – contemplative in a sad resigned way, lack energy, expects the worst in everything, too much black bile 3. phlegmatics – slept too much, dull, cowardly, sluggish, and overweight, too much phlegm 4. sanguine – best personality type, even tempered, cheerful, hopeful, assertive, more blood than other types philosophers took from literary types Francis Bacon (1561-1626) thought that some people were better suited to certain jobs than others Like some people are good at thinking about multiple things at once while others do better when focusing on a few things, some people like to do things quickly whereas others like to take time on bigger projects 5 century BCE China: Confucius worked a system (The Analects) for telling people how to bring harmony in a socially chaotic world importance of learning, education and overcoming the self Ancient Athenians and Spartans traveled to have their futures told Ancient Chinese officials were using mental tests in 2 nd century BCE (to place people in gov positions) Middle Ages = college degrees based on formal tests Psych testing focused on mental ability til 20 century when it broadened to tests of attitudes, temperaments and personality Different Kinds of Answers The questions “Who am I?” or “How should you live your life?” can have different answers depending on when/how it’s asked and who is asked. Like a friend might say we have different strengths than we would say that we have Or they could point out a ton of flaws when we’re fighting David Funder (1995,1999) and other researchers found that people are pretty accurate at describing external traits that are readily noticeable like how sociable a person is But when it comes to more internal qualities (like intelligence) accuracy decreases Interest in Personality Psychological Mindedness = an interest in understanding relationships among psychological processes and how they influence a person’s life What is Personality? In 1887 Wilhelm Wundt founded the first psychological laboratory o Saw that smaller psychological systems build into larger ones in a hierarchy of complexity o Middle level = motivation, emotion, intelligence o Highest level = psychical personality Molecular-Mole Continuum = to organize what is being studied within a given field, divides smaller objects from larger one. Molecular = things that are relatively small o Like sensing the color orange, feeling a pang of envy Molar = things that are larger and combine smaller processes What is a System? A system = a set pf interrelated parts Defining Personality Prince: “the sum total of all the biological innate dispositions and the acquired dispositions and tendencies” Opposition = definition of personality as the study of individual differences Individual Differences = emphasizes that personality psychologists should measure differences among people, classify people according to those differences and predict how those differences influence behavior Personality = the organized, developing system within the individual that represents the collective action of that individual’s major psychological subsystems Inner-Outer Dimension (or Internal-External) = personality is internal to the person, consciousness is internal to personality Third dimension = time What is a Field of Science? A field of science = an organized group of individuals who study a common topic and who add to what we know about it. Modern Personality Psychology Many tried to synthesize into one single grand theory of personality Freud = preeminent – psychodynamic psychology (how one part of the mind influences the other) Other theorists = Carl Jung (psychoanalytical psychology) and Alfred Adler (individual psychology) Abraham Roback (1927) wrote The Psychology of Character; an early textbook in the field Gordon Allport o Taught personality survey course at Harvard o 1937 – publishes a textbook Personality Psychology; collected dozens of meanings of the term and explained why it was called that. o Introduced the theory of traits Henry Murray o 1938 – published textbook Explorations in Personality; focused on motives (both conscious and unconscious) o Intruduced theory of needs Evolving Viewpoints Started as a theory by theory approach Then evolved into a personality systems framework Training and Research
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