HDFS 3400 Chapter 9
HDFS 3400 Chapter 9 3440
Popular in Human Sexuality
Popular in Human Development
This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Caroline Bacevice on Monday March 2, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 3440 at Ohio State University taught by Katye Miller in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 139 views. For similar materials see Human Sexuality in Human Development at Ohio State University.
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Date Created: 03/02/15
Human Sexuality Chapter 9 A Continuum of Sexual Orientations Sexual orientation Sexual attraction to one s own sex homosexual to the other sex heterosexual or to both sexes bisexual or lack of sexual interest in either sex asexual Hetero exibility individuals who are primarily heterosexual and have some degree of sexual interest and or experience with the same sex Homo exibility Individuals who are primarily homosexual and have some degree of sexual interest in and or experience with the other sex Sexual Fluidity Variability in same sex and other sex attraction and involvement at different times and in different situations throughout the life span 0 Kinsey Scale 07 0 Selfidentify as homosexual W11 M17 o Selfidentify as bisexual W35 M11 0 Self identify as heterosexual W 94 96 Asexuality a lack of sexuality to either sex 0 Different than celibacy where a person can choose asexuality is an intrinsic part of who we arequot 0 Although they lack sexual attraction towards others they vary in their interests in friendships affection romance and partnershipincluding marriage Bisexuality sexual attraction to both men and women 0 For women studies have shown the higher the woman s sex drive the more likely she was to feel sexual desire for both sexes 0 It s not Always Easy Being Bisexual I Gay men and lesbians sometimes view a bisexual person as someone who is really homosexual but lacks the courage to identify himself or herself as such I Comparing male and female heterosexuals attitudes towards bisexuality Women equally accepted bisexual men and women Men were less accepting of bisexual men than of bisexual women 0 Some believe bisexual male individuals to be actually gayquot and bisexual female individuals to be actually heterosexualquot o Performative Bisexuality I Heterosexualidentified women who interact sexually with other women for the purpose of pleasing and arousing men I Women are motivated to perform as bisexual in order to appear sexy and desirable to men I Some men feel entitled to use considerable pressure to persuade their female partners to interact sexually with other women I Often occurs at fraternity parties bars clubs or privately in the context of a threesome with two women and one man Homosexuality 0 Many men and women born after 1970 call themselves queer and refer to queer culture to defuse the negativity of the word and blur the boundaries between subgroups of gay men lesbians bisexuals and all variations of transgendered people belonging to the queer nationquot 0 LGBTQ lesbian gay bisexual transgendered and questioning What Determines Sexual Orientation Psychosocial Theories Debunking o The By Default Myth I Bell s analysis of the data in his research indicated that homosexual orientation re ects neither a lack of heterosexual experience nor a history of negative heterosexual experiences 0 The Seduction Myth I Research indicates that sexual orientation is often established before school age and that most homosexual people have their first sexual experience with someone their own age 0 Freud s Theory I Instead of boys who have closer relationships to their mothers and girls closer relationships to their fathers more likely to be gay Bell concluded that no particular phenomenon of family life could be singled out as especially consequential for either homosexual or heterosexual developmentquot Research in Biological Factors 0 Still no definitive scientific answer to homosexuality o It is unlikely to due a single simple biological cause 0 Twin studies higher concordance rate for identical twins than fraternal twines provides strong evidence of a genetic component to sexual orientation in some individuals 0 Gender Nonconformity A lack of conformity to stereotypical masculine and feminine behaviors Variations in Research Findings Between Homosexual Men And Women 0 Gay men are more likely than lesbians to have characteristics that are not typical of homosexuals 0 Studies show gay and bisexual men begin puberty earlier than heterosexual men Implications if Biology is Destiny 0 People who believe that homosexuality is biologically based have more positive feelings and support gay civil rights Societal Attitudes Regarding Homosexuality IudeoChristian Attitudes Toward Homosexuality o Homosexuality viewed negatively o Reform Iudaism sanctioned same sex marriage in 200 and conservative Jewish leaders are reexamining their ban 0 Historically homosexuals have been tortured and put to death throughout Western history 0 The Unitarian Universalist Association the United Church of Christ and the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America are the only Christian denominations that officially sanction the blessing of gay and lesbian unions From Sin to Sickness o Curing the illness of homosexuality I Castration I Lobotomy I Psychotherapy drugs hormones hypnosis shock treatments and aversion therapy 0 GayAffirmative Therapytherapy to help homosexual clients cope with negative societal attitudes 0 Conversion therapy sexual reorientation therapy Therapy to help homosexual men and women change their sexual orientation Homophobia Irrational fears of homosexuality the fear of the possibility of homosexuality in oneself or loathing toward one s own sexuality 0 Hate Crimes I Subject to severer sentences than other crimes 0 Causes of Homophobia and Hate Crimes I Homophobia and hate crimes are usually related to traditional gender role identification I Men typically have more negative attitudes toward homosexuality than women do 0 Increasing Acceptance I Homophobic attitudes can change with deliberate effort experience or education The Gay Rights Movement First organization promoting education about homosexuality was founded in Germany 40 years before WWII The Stonewall Incident and Beyond 0 1969 Stonewall Inn NYC police raided a gay bar and bar patrons fought back Decriminalization of Private Sexual Behavior 0 Lawrence vs Texas ruling overturned laws in five states that banned samesex sex and in another nine states that banned sodomy between partners of any sexual orientation Antidiscrimination O O O 99 of major US companies now have nondiscrimination policies United Nations statement calling for worldwide decriminalization of homosexuality September 2011 Don t Ask Don t Tell was repealed Legal Civil Marriage for Same Sex Couples 0 0 US democracy is based on the principle of separation of church and state and religion should not dictate to government which couples can obtain civil marriage licenses 1996 DOMA Defense of Marriage Act denied federal recognition of same sex marriages that were made legal in individual states and it gave states the right not to recognize such marriages performed in other states About 22 of all samesex couples in the US have formalized their relationship under state laws of various types Coming Out The process of becoming aware of and disclosing one s homosexual identity 0 Three different generations of lesbians I Lesbians who became adults before the gay rights era began in the 1970s I Lesbians who became adults during the gay rights era between 1970 and 1985 I Lesbians who became adults after 1985 Self Acknowledgement I Initial step is a person s realization that he or she feels different from the mainstream heterosexual model Self Acceptance I Involved overcoming the internalized negative and homophobic view of homosexuality I Almost half of gay and lesbian teens lost at least one friend after they came out I Study showed that 25 of gay and lesbian students were homeless while only 3 of heterosexual student were homeless Disclosure I Outing Public disclosure of someone else s secret homosexual orientation by someone else I Passing Presenting a false image of being heterosexual Telling the Family I Families that are less authoritarian and more cohesive are more likely to react with less stress to disclosure of homosexuality I African American community has a stronger negative view of homosexuals than does White society Involvement in the Gay Community I Helps provide a feeling of belonging and the affirmations and acceptance that are missing in the larger culture Homosexual Relationships in Context 0 All social classes occupations races religions and political persuasions are represented among homosexual people 0 The Comparison of Gay and Straight Relationships I Compared to straight couples gay couples Used more affection and humor in the face of con ict and disagreement Were more likely to remain positive after a disagreement Displayed less belligerence fear and domineering behavior with each other 0 Differences Between Gays and Lesbians and Sexual Behavior and Attitudes I Lesbians are likely to have had far fewer sexual partners and lesbian couples are much more likely than males couples to have monogamous relationships 0 Family Life I 17 of lesbian and gay couples are raising children
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