Roots of the European Hegemony
Roots of the European Hegemony HIST 1011
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Estefania Notetaker on Monday March 2, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1011 at George Washington University taught by Professor Dane Kennedy in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 100 views. For similar materials see World History, 1500-Present in History at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 03/02/15
Roots of the European Hegemony January 22 2015 Lecture A Rise of Western Europe a Context Early Europe i ii iii iv V i Feudah 1 Highly fragmented 2 Kings don t have all that much power to get the other ruling elite to do what they want 3 Begins to change in the late middle ages Organized in agricultural line 1 Ruling elites 2 Serfs peasants were bond to the land a Unfree labor i Not slavery because they were not sold ii Instead they were bond to the land Subsistence economy 1 Only make enough for your family and more will be left to the landlord a Does not encourage commerce b Does not provide incentive for greater production Majority of people were catholic 9 cultural cohesion 1 Christianity still identified the holy land as the epicenter 9 Leads to crusades Black Death Bubonic Plague 1 13 of the population dies off Changed begin to occur late 1300s Europe the underdog would rise to the occasion b Industrious revolution i ii Driver The Black Death kills of so many people that demand for labor grows and its hard for lords to keep serfs tied to the land 1 Serfdom is disappears in western Europe 2 Free people allow for the creation and growth of a commercial economy 3 Market counts spring up in Western Europe 4 Surplus goods gathered together in specific times at specific places to sell their goods a Architectural marvels i Largest in Europe and probably in the world ii Show of innovation Driver Mongols 1 Mongols a Nomadic people i Called quotbarbariansquot ii Yet they surprised everyone when they conquered a significant portion of eruasia 2 Created an empire i Establish themselves as the head and allow the people to operate as they did before ii Spread China middle east eurasia iii The largest empire the world had seen up to that point iv However they didn t get to subSaharan Africa or the Americas 3 Create a political system that facilities trade a They help make the Black Plague possible in europe i Trade 9 more contact 9 spread of disease 4 Exemplified by Marco Polo s travels a Marco Polo 12711295 i He goes to establish trade and explore along the silk road ii Brings back incredible amount of knowledge about Eurasia c Intellectual Renaissance i ii iii iv Related with the spread of contact and trade 1 More prosperity9 people can devote their life to learning 2 Universities models in Islamic madrasa a Founded 1100 to 1200 b By 1500s about 80 spread across europe The printing press 1 Developed by Johannes Gutenberg 1393 4468 2 Before writing and publishing was done by hand so a great amount of people remained illiterate 3 His invention changed the dynamic Reinforced by the Protestant Reformation 1517 1 Idea that interpretation to the bible should not be limited to the priest It should be given to everyone 2 It wants to make the bible more accessible a Translate from Latin to the vernaculars 9 King James Version By 1500 10 million distinct books 1 Revolution in spread of ideas and literacy Rediscovery of the classical world via Islam 9 The renaissance 1 Crusades Con ict with Islam 9 Yet It leads European to gain knowledge from Islamic world d Political Consolidation i Rise of more powerful monarchs 1 Nobility use to unable the king a Army and taxes were controlled by lords who controlled serfs and land b Serfdom ends 9 nobility loses power 2 Commerce 9 good bye lords a Kings are now able to i Taxes ii Army iii Bureaucracy 3 Reformation 9 goodbye church a Church use to unable kings b Catholic church begins to dwindle as a political entity e They are head nowbut why do they decide to lead the charge for globalization B Why Europe a Motives Commerce i Economic selfinterest ii Great eagerness to acquire products that came from further east iii Europeans have greater freedom to commerce 1 Kings 9 focused on defeating nobility and church iv Merchants 1 If Kings don t help they make their own citistates a Venice Genoa Amsterdam 2 They start making finance banks and the foundation for capitalism V However there were also very successful economic enterprises b Motives Religion i The role of Christianity in European expansion ii Duty to spread the religion iii Can it be the desire to spread any ideology c Means Nationstates i 1672 Bartholomew s day massacre 1 King kills of Huguenots religious cleansing ii Stronger states 1 Following the Thirty Years War c 16151648 a Peace of Westphalia 9 created modern nation states and idea of sovereignty d Means Technology i Development of deadly weapons ii Naval technology that allows for sailing the deep ocean iii Thirty years war 016151648 e In essence all these came together 9 European world leadership i Seeking trade and wishing to expand ideology created motives for expansion ii At the same time the creation of the nationstates and development of technology iii Quick note Early modern periodquot refers 9 15000 to French Revolution C The Happy Accident a Another school of historians who have thrown out theory previously discussed 9 They argue that there is not that European nations were superior but that they had a happy accidentquot i Two reasons they were able to succeed steam from Malthusian crisis a situation in which the population in a given area has exceeded its food supply and therefore mass starvation results This lowers the population and the cycle continues until the population and its food supply are once again in balance Thomas Malthus 0 Human populations grow at a faster rate than food supply 0 They reach their limit in resources and decline 0 Europe was starting to go through this I How to get rid of this Results9 One Energy use 0 Wood was the main energy use By the early modern period forests were being cut down extensively and that lead to a crisis that was resolved by the creation of coal 0 Europeans were able to exploit the coal I Chinese not able to exploit in the same one according to the argument Two Getting across the ocean 0 They got across the Pacific Ocean and were able to send their surplus population and exploit the resources I In addition they came with diseases that helped kill off their opponents ii Other theory Kennet Pomerant Great Divergencequot a D Terms a Mongols b Black Death Bubonic plague c Marco Polo 12711295 d Johannes Gutenberg 13931468 e Protestant Reformation 1517 f Thirty Years War c 16151648
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