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This 9 page was uploaded by Abby Notetaker on Thursday April 17, 2014. The belongs to a course at University of Washington taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 163 views.
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Date Created: 04/17/14
B STR 301 Anatomy week 1 March 31 2014 Anatomical Axes Anterior Side front Posterior sideback Superior sidetopgt Ex could be used for skull Inferior side bottomgtEx Could be used for skull Medial side closer to midline of the bodygt Example side of foot closer to middle of body vs side of foot farther from body Lateral side farther from midline of body Head straddles midline Distal vs proximal Hand is im shoulder farther from center of body than shoulder Elbow is proximal to the hand elbow closer to center of body than hand Rostralz towards nose vs Caudalz towards tail more helpful when talking about a quadruped ie dog but can be useful when talking about the brain stem Dorsal towards back think of dorsal fin Ventral towards stomach Plantar of or relating to the sole of the foot Palmer of or relating to the palm of the hand Superficial Vs Deep Brain is dip compared to scalp Scap is superficial compared to brain Supine laying on back Prone laying on stomach Body Regions Cephalic head Thoracic chest Axillary armpit Pectoral upper chest Brachial upper arm Umbilical belly button Carpal wrist abdominal lower trunk abs Femoral upper leg inguinal groin Pubic pubic bone region Planes of Section Frontal Sagittal Transverse horizontal Frontalcut in half lengthwise separating front from back Sagitta cut in half lengthwise separating right from left Transverse cut in half horizontally Imaging Methods X ray shows dense parts of tissue ex Bone CT Scan image built of many xrays MR more detailing of soft tissue More expensive no xrays Less available takes more time All of the imaging methods are mirror reversed when you look at them ie your right is its left and vice versa April 1 2014 Tissue a component of organs and organ systems that contain both cells and extracellular material Four kinds of Tissue 1 Epithelial Tissue 2 Connective Tissue 3 Muscle Tissue 4 Nervous Tissue Epithelial Tissue Functions 0 Barrier between body and worls 0 Layer separating different components of one organ 0 Surrounds organ 3 kinds of epithelium 1 Simple a Tightly packed one layer 2 Pseudostratifie a One layer but it looks like more because each cell extends to basement membrane 3 Stratified a Multiple layers b Can be many cells thick to withstand mechanical trauma ie childbirth CeHshapes 1 Squamous flat corresponds to simple epithelium 2 Cuboidal like a 3d cube corresponds to pseudostratified epithelium 3 Columnar like a 3d rectangle corresponds to stratified epithelium Practical example tubues inside kidney are lined with simple epithelium Blood vessels are lined with simple epithelium I All blood vessels regardless of size thin squamous epithelium layer in capillary Has to be thin so the nutrients like Oxygen and glucose can reach cells Serous membrane slippery membrane filled with serous fluid Why would we want a slippery membrane 0 Many of the organs in the abdominal cavity are moving waves of muscles of contrations in stomach and intestines 0 Serous membrane prevents friction and irritation when organs are moving Connective Tissue Kinds 1 Fibrous Connective Tissue 2 Cartilage 3 Adipose Tissue 4 Bone 5 Blood Fibrous Connective Tissue 1 Dense Regular Connective Tissue found in tendons and ligaments i Packed tightly ii Made of collagen iii Force on tendonsligaments is always going to be in the same direction iv Not a lot of blood vessels takes a long time to heal 2 Dense Irregular Connective Tissue found in skin i Collagen bundle ii Randomly dispersed iii Few cells iv Lots of blood vessels easier to heal v Found primarily in skin Cartilage 1 Hyaline Cartilage a Made up of fine collagen bundles b Chondrocytes in cartilage c Found between different bones glassy and smooth d Attaches ribs to sternum 2 Elastic Cartilage a Less in body than Hyaline b Elastic fibers in cartilage c Found in tip of nose and ears 3 Fibrous Cartilage a Found in pads between vertebrae intervertebral discs b Function shock absorption c Bundles of collagen going in one direction in matrix Adipose Tissue Fat 1 Made up of many adipocyte cells a Organelles in each adipocyte cell are pushed up agoinst the sides of the cell beacause each cell is filled with one drop of fat b Most fat in under the skin subcutaneous fat Or Stomach intra abdomina visceral fat cushions organs in abdomen especially kidneys Fat layer around heart 0 While you39re growing you keep adding adipocyte cells after about age 20 you sto adding adipocyte cells 0 Gastric Band stomach Reduction o Put band around stomach I Fill it up with saline o Person can now only eat smaller amounts April 3 2014 Skin Functions of skin Barrier against infection trauma Sensory organ As protection against UV Thermoregulation Protection against water loss As insulator Site of Vitamin D synthesis 39 Uquot39gtS quot 1 square inch of skin contains 95 million epithelial cells 950000 melanocytes 400000 macrophages 19 yards of blood vessels Keratinocytes make keratin gives skin its toughness and its ability to act as a barrier Melanocytesz produce melanin which absorbs UV light and protects against damage Sweat glands purpose is to help us stay cool Sebaceous glands purpose is to lubricate and water proof skin and hair Epidermis Outer layer of skin Contains Keratinocytes dead keratinocytes what we see Deeper layers of epidermis have melanocytes and stem cells Dermis Layer under Epidermis Bood supply Hair follicles sebaceous glands sweat pores Hypodermis 0 Not skin 0 Subcutaneous layer under dermis 0 Composed of connective an adipose tissue Properties of Skin 0 Mechanical properties tough but elastic 0 Bilayered 0 Color skin color scan be variable based on the mix of melanin the orange pigment carotene and red blood flow 0 Highly vascularized providing essential nutrients 0 Functional when dead 0 Adaptable Adaptations of Skin 1 Callusing 2 Calluses are formed by the accumulation of keratinocytes Skin senses extra usage which causes epidermis to thicken by increased cell division thickens 35 times as much Tanning UV radiation damage is responsible for 90 of the changes people find medically or cosmetically troubling Melanin is able to block over 999 of absorbed UV radiation Rapid response UV light causes conversion of preexisting melanin to oxidized state darker color Slow response Skin makes a higher concentration of melanin takes about 3 days Heat Excessive heat can cause heat stroke Rapid Response sweating and vasodilation which brings hot blood to surface and away from organs Slow response remodeling of sweat glands Cold Rapid Response Vasoconstriction of surface blood vessels to keep heat in body only skin adaptation Body starts shivering and increases metabolic rate muscular response Slow response buildup of subcutaneous fat Wound Healing Step 1 Cut into dermis Fills with blood Clot begins to form cuts off blood vessels to are Parts of clot start pulling skin together Macrophages come and take away excess cells Blood vessels open up to area again Leaves scab less penetrable than normal skin Uquot39gtS quot Skin Structure Papillary Dermis Peg like Papillae interlock with epidermis to give strength lock dermis and epidermis together so skin doesn t slide Create ridges that allow for grip doesn39t seem like a big deal until you try and pick something up with a glove on Dead Skin Remains partially functional It exists asa sheet with cells held together by desmosomes creating zone of strong cell adhesion o When keratinocytes are exposed to air they form aggregates that make a staunch barrier o Farther away from nutrients eventually slough off Secretory pores 1 Sweat Glands 2 kinds a Eccrine most abundant found almost all over body to keep us cool b Aprocrine sweat gland Not functional until puberty men have it on their face because of facial hair Burn Treatment Artificial Skin Used as a temporary rememdy to buy time for new skin to colonize an area o Now they can grow cultures from patient and it is a permanent patch HPV Virus infection can cause benign warts can cause tumors Shingles caused by a herpes virus same virus that causes chicken pox remains dormant es are a benign growth buildup of melanin Melanoma cancer most deadly skin cancer ABCD s of melanoma A asymmetry B Border distinct border C Color D Death Schleroderma hardening of skin poor circulation April 4 2014 Bone Tissue Articular Cartilage covers where bone is going to meet other bones Periosteum covers the rest of the bone lightly Fibrous and full of collagen Compact Bone central canal with blood vessels and nerve in compact bone Most weight of bone comes from compact spongy bone makes up most of bone Osteoblastsz make new bone Osteocytes osteoblasts that get stuck in osteoid Not dead but dormant life Can transfer nutrients waste Osteoclast made up of many pre cursor cells fused together Comb like structure Function destroy bone o Releases Hydrogen ions acid from comblike side o Acid works away at the bone o Leaves and osteoblasts come in and remodel Spongy Bone bone underneath periosteum Osteoporosis osteoclasts breakling down bone faster than osteoblasts can rebuild it bone more gragile Fractured vertebral compact on itself forming quothunchback Common fracture sites vertebrae and wrist More common in women ower bone density to begin with loss of estrogen after menopause sharply reduces bone depsotion How do muscle tendons and ligaments attach to bone bundles of collagen running through periosteum and tendons periosteum stays on bone by sharpey fibers collagen fibers that penetrate the bone Maintaining Healthy Bone 1 Exercise 2 Drink Milk 3 Get some sun
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