Destruction of Native American Societies
Destruction of Native American Societies HIST 1011
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Estefania Notetaker on Monday March 2, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1011 at George Washington University taught by Professor Dane Kennedy in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 84 views. For similar materials see World History, 1500-Present in History at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 03/02/15
Destruction of Native American Societies January 29 2015 Lecture A Spanish Roots of Conquest a Spain prior to the conquest i War focus society that is motivated by religious fanaticism ii Fighting for hundreds of years against the Muslims In fact Islam reigned in the Iberian Peninsula for some 1 time 2 1492 the Spanish get rid of the Muslim 3 That same year Columbus sailed the blue sea iii The struggle with Islam had created a warrior class People would acquire power and wealth in wars against Muslims and justified their actions in religion They said they would advance Christianity at any cost necessary 1 a b Forcible conversion of Muslims 1492 Jews are expelled from Spain iv Spanish Inquisition 1 The greatest attempt through terror to stick to the orthodox religion Important to appreciate this background in context of the new world conquest b Mixture of militarism adventure and religious fanaticism that played a 2 role in the new world i Conquistadores Military aristocratic class Different from other forms of explorers or settlers who want to establish trade to settle in a new place Warrior class with value in achieving success in battle and plundering for wealth 1 a b d You find money not by trade or farming but by fighting and taking the wealth of others After inquisition is finished and the Muslim are out they don t have anything else to do i Who can they fight 9 The new world is their new playing ground ii A new place to demonstrate their skills and to make their wealth gold or silver Their goal conquer grab what they can and go home i No desire to stay in the land In their eyes i Native Americans are even worst than the Muslim ii At least Muslims and Jews had a connection to Jesus Christ but they native American were polytheistic iii They seem to practice black magicquot e Further their logic and provides justification for abuses 3 The results were terrible abuses for the Native Americans ii Church clergy and priests 1 Catholic priest accompanying voyages from the get go 9The first waves are only there to help the conquistadores not to save the natives 2 Question for the priests Are Native Americans human a Huge implications i If they are not human then they have no soul 9They don t require conversion and spiritual care ii If they are human 9 the Catholic Church has a duty to convert them and save them 3 With time it was decided that they were human and that they needed to be saved a This propels a new wage of Spanish priests with the sole purpose to convert Native American communities b At this point the priests encounter Native American communities that had been shattered c Their societies communities families and love ones were destroyed and they were more sensitive to conversion 4 Conversion and missionaries a How stable and secure have those native people and societies i Depending on that it will either succeed or fail 1 The more broken they more success 2 The stronger the less successful conversion 5 Bartolome de las Casas a Priest was a defender of human rights and a native populations i Native Americans are human and they need to be protected ii He becomes one of the leading critics iii He goes back to Spain and engages in great debate with other on weather native B Violent Encounters a The Requirement America were human and were not be enslaved 1 1402 Spanish prohibit slavery 2 Bonded slavery of other kinds continues Humanitarian response from some of the Native American to the Spanish i He studies the Native American culture with some informants from the indigenous population Hero of humanitarian values He accomplishes change in values ie slavery i However the conquistadores are in charge i Fail to submit to the Spanish will justijj that conquistadores take their wives make slaves take your land make them dead and its all their fall for not submitting 1 You obey or we will kill you and it s your fault for not listening to us 2 Read in Spanish to nonSpanish speakers b Hispaniola i Arawak Native American populations that inhabited Hispaniola prior to Spanish contact and conquest 1 Prior to contact 3 million people In 50 years 9 only 500 left Essentially Genocide ii Same starts to happen in Island after Island c Cortes and Aztecs 2 i Hernan Cortes 1 Lands and starts hearing stories about great land in interior 2 He ignores orders to stay in coast He burns boats and forced his men to come with him ii They are on their way to Tenochtitlan Tenochtitlan located near the western shore of Lake texoco in central Mexico The capital city and religious center of the Aztec 1 Quetzalcoatl The Aztec people believed the light skinned god would one day return a b When the Spaniards approached the city the Aztecs at first thought it was their god The Aztec Emperor Montezuma soon realized that Cortes was not a god He sent him gold and gifts to encourage him to turn back Didn t work 3 With 600 men Cortes and his men take on the empire Within a year they take over the empire d Pizzaro and Inca i Pizzaro 1 180 Spanish soldiers and comes in to contact with huge empire 2 He asks to meet with the emperor It was a trap 3 180 men kill off 6000 that came to the meeting to protect the emperor 4 Result 9 kill the emperor and take over empire C Why were the Spanish so successful a The groundwork is laid by disease 9Epidemic disease i Disease spread even before the conquistadores arrived at the center of the cities ii Europeans see the Native Americans around dying 1 Why They think it is because God is killing of the Native Americans and not your people They think is God s favor b Technology i Arms superiority Gun steel and specialization ii Horses Natives had never seen them before iii Military experience Spanish had military experience in the Muslim wars iv Acquiring intelligence They had experience engaging with people who were unfamiliar to them 1 Since the Native American never met anyone they think Spanish are gods a Quetzalcoatl god would come from you across the seas in a cloud b Could not process the encounter and deal with it 2 Spanish had writing a They could share information with other Spanish across the Americas i Instead the Native Americans were only able to communicate orally 3 Spanish have native informants a Some even translating i Do a Marina Cubine and interpreter of Hernan Cortes b Translators are a huge advantage i They can communicate with native to assist them in their military campaigns 4 Divide and Conquer a Divide the loyalties of the natives and use them to help conquer big empires D Divisions of Spoils E Terms rm E19 crs Treaty of Tordesillas i 1949 The Pope divides the conquest between the Portuguese and the Spanish 1 That s why 9 a Brazil ends up being Portuguese b The Spanish can t touch Africa i They cannot be part of the slave trade Protestant states don t care what the Pope had to say about the Treaty of Tordesillas 9 i New European powers who disregard the Treaty of Tordesillas want to get a piece of the wealth the Spanish were exploiting All states are trying to establish their presence preferably where the Spanish have not arrived European powers start seeking sources to exploit the Americas i Looking for great empires to take gold and riches from ii Finding no more great empires or gold to exploit 9European powers start shifting attention to the land 1 However there were Native Americans people from their land They need to rational and justification for theft 1 The English John Locke Terra Nullius Null Land a Native Americans were not making good use of the land and then it doesn t belong to them b All European powers find a reason to justify stealing Native American land ii iii iv Why killed and not slave Native Americans 1 Not good labor force because they know the land and can leave African slaves more useful because they don t know the land and have to stay 2 They were dying off due to disease 3 Europeans wanted some allies every now and then Inquisition Bartolome de las Casas Requirement Arawak Terra nullius Quetzalcoatl