2/24 Lecture Notes and Chapter 5 Reading Notes
2/24 Lecture Notes and Chapter 5 Reading Notes SOC 1300 - DORSEY
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SOC 1300 - DORSEY
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Chloe Lall on Monday March 2, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SOC 1300 - DORSEY at University of Houston taught by Patricia Dorsey in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 139 views. For similar materials see SOC 1300 in Sociology at University of Houston.
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Date Created: 03/02/15
Lecture Notes from 224 FunctionalStructuralism system parts job gt looking at the big picture Symbolic interactionism shared transmitted meanings gt looking at the small picture Culture is 0 Characteristics of groups 0 Way of understanding differences amp similarities 0 Not natural gt is a social phenomenon gt it39s created by people Played out through interactions with others Culture 1 Shared system of beliefs knowledge meaning 2 Provides us with implicit instructions what we have to do Moral imperative Ex demands families put on you that lead you to make certain decisions The culture within quotThe last thing a fish would ever notice is waterquot Swimming along with culture until another culture comes up and clashes with our own we see life differently Pierre Bourdieu Assumptions about world Habitus habits we live out Future choices and opinions Tool kit symbolic skills or devices What are the skills you39ve learned and when do you use them to fit in different places Nonmaterial culture Nonphysicalintangible human creations Cannot hold or see 0 OOO Symbols Language Values Things that matter to you Standards of ideals Culturally define standards The sports we play the things we see Demonstrate our values Comparisons value judgments Contradictory Commitments and choices Can also change We have cultures conflicting and changing Beliefs specific 0 What we believe to be true 00000er 0000 L Ex I believe it39s important to be patriotic 0 Culture conflict arises 1 Norms 0 Rules and expectations of what behavior should consist of Mores great moral significance Hurting a child Killing Stealing Incest Folkways routine of casual interaction Do you open a door for a women going through Pass the food around the dinner table Hegemony elites gain power or legitimacy from widely shared beliefs 0 Culture wars arguments over proper role 0 Multiculturalism beliefs or policies promoting equal accommodation 0 Gramsci dominant classes maintain status by encouraging values that are favorable to them When working hard gets you no where Public sphere and Society 0 Public sphere is when people meet to together and have meetings and discuss issues important to them ls everyone included in the important issues Does it benefit everyone Everyone participates and discusses 0 Today social groups organize to become political actors and Habermas 0 Alt public spheres Counterpublics Fraser ls Popular Culture an Industry or a Cultural Democracy 0 Adorno says people passively accept what they are given by corporate media Cultural Industry Perspective quotAll mass culture under monopoly is identical and the contours of its skeleton are beginning to stand outquot Enlightenment as mass deception Says we bow into media 0 Gans says corporate media give people what they want Cultural democracy perspective Chapter 5 Reading Notes What is Culture 0 Examples of culture Latest song by Beyonce Performance of the opera Headline in a newspaper The reason one person sleeps in and another wakes up early 0 quotCulture is one of the two or three most complicated words in the English languageF 0 History of the concept of culture Begins with rise of world travel in 18th amp 19th centuries Merchants from Europe came into contact with nonEuropeans for the first time Struck by physical and behavioral differences How they dressed The way their families were organized Toward 19th century anthropologists criticized the idea and argued that it was not race that was responsible for differences it was something learned Something socially produced 3 basic conclusions about culture 1 Culture is a characteristic not of indiv But of groups 2 Culture is a way of understanding differences and similarities between groups 3 Culture is an aspect of social life that is different from nature or biology 0 Culture the entire way of life of a people Sociologists refer to one of the 2 things 1 Shared system of beliefs and knowledge system of meaning shared among a group and transmitted to indiv Through social interactions 2 Set of tools for social actions a quottool kitquot of assumptions and behaviors for daily life 0 Symbols communicates an idea while being distinct from the idea itself EX A red heart implies love a green traffic lights tells us we are allowed to quotgoquot Communicate implicit meaning about an idea 0 Clifford Geertz Demonstrated the idea that culture is a system of collective meaning by analyzing a Balinese cockfight in 1950s in Indonesia boxing matches between Roosters Outlawed by national gov but still important events in the local communities Concluded that betting wasn39t only about winning or losing the money it was a way of indicating and reworking status hierarchies determining high status through amount of betting Ethnography research method based on lengthy and intimate observation of a group Values judgments about what is intrinsically important or meaningful Like patriotism competitiveness and consumerism Some see culture as guiding our behavior by establishing goals for us Pierre Bourdieu Argued that all develop certain sets of assumptions about the world and our place in it our tastes preferences and skills Devlop these habits habitus in the course of growing up and socializing with others They become routine and we don39t realize that we are following them The kind of habitus we have comes from our upbringing Helps us explain how our future choices and opinions are guided by our experiences from the past 0 Tool kit a set of symbolic skills or devices that we learn through the cultural environment we live in and apply to practical situations in our own lives Apply to different situations people find themselves in 0 Culture as a system and culture as practice describe forms of communication which is sharing of meaningful information between people Occurs through Language which refers to any comprehensive system or words or symbols representing concepts and does not usually have to be spoken Language is cultural universal which is a cultural trait common to all humans Mass communication communication that can occur at large within society Occurred through mass media TV Radio Newspapers The internet is the main product for mass communication Has created new set of communication possibilities Has altered the way children adults and how the elderly engage with one another Communication near and far Also changed how corps Operate the way charities raise funds how the political officials campaign and how social movements are organized O OO o Manuel Castells O Argues that we are participating in a new form of Internetcentered communication that he calls mass selfcommunication because it can reach a global audience but the content is self generated and directed Digital divide a divide between who is connected and who is not who has access to the information vs who does not How Does Culture Shape Our Collective Identity 0 Culture is central to group identity Defining the group and maintaining it Group style set of norms and practices that distinguishes one group from another Different groups have different norms Mainstream culture widely shared systems of meaning and cultural tool kits in society Some groups set themselves off of mainstream culture EX Hippies online gamers They were considered to be deviants Now sociologists refer to the groups as subcultures relatively small groups of people whose affiliation is based on shared beliefs preferences and practices that exist under the mainstream and are distinguished from the mainstream EX rock climbers hunters ballroom dances chess players Claude Fischer Claimed that subcultures are most likely to emerge in cities Counterculture group those ideas attitudes and behaviors are in direct conflict with mainstream culture and who actively contest the dominant cultural practices in the societies in which they are a part of Gramsci Hegemony when elites gain legitimacy and power from widely shared yet taken for granted beliefs about what is right or wrong proper or improper valuable or not Argued movements seeking to radically transform a society needed not just to win political power but to overthrow cultural hegemony fight common sense with good sense Culture wars refer to arguments over the proper role of family and religious values in certain questions of state policy Abortion rights Immigration rights Gay rights Two dominant cultures against each other liberal and conservative culture James Davison Hunter Argued that people tended to line up on the same sides on many of theseissues o Multiculturalism refers to beliefs or policies promoting equal accommodation of different ethnic or cultural groups within a society 0 Ethnocentrism an inability to understand or accept cultural practices different from one39s own EX The melting pot Leads us to make incorrect assumptions about others on the basis of our own experience 0 Cultural relativism evaluating cultural meanings and practices in their own social contexts Opposite of ethnocentrism 0 Global culture incorporates cultural practices common to large parts of the world Microsoft Windows spread around the world and has a common language with different people 0 National Culture set of shared cultural practices and beliefs within a given nationstate o Nationalism fact that people think of themselves as inherently members of a nation 0 National communities Came about with the origination of print capitalism the mass production of books and newspapers written in local languages for simultaneous mass consumption How Do Our Cultural Practices Relate to Class and Status 0 Cultural signs The way someone dresses How they speak Sports they play Music that they life AKA taste their cultural preferences 0 Resources people can bring to bear in their lives Economic capital money and other economic assets Social capital social connections and networks of friends and acquaintances Cultural capital your success in life Your education attitudes preferences We display taste in everyday life Taste also implies distaste Cultural omnivores cultural elites who demonstrate high status through a broad range of cultural consumption including lowstatus culture Symbolic Boundaries the kinds of distinctions that people make between themselves and others on the basis of taste Socioeconomic status the amount of money you make and the kind of job you have Morality the moral considerations that guide the way you live or appear to Often take geographical form Use terms such as quotout of placequot or quotknowing your placequot EX Graffiti is considered out of place on public works but are sometimes viewed as quoturban artquot and would excel in an art gallery not in the public streets Class reproduction process that causes class boundaries and distinctions to be maintained over time Concerted cultivation middle class parents fostering their child39s talents and intervening on their behalf a sense of entitlement They will push to succeed socioeconomically when they are older Accomplishment of natural growth working class parents cared for their children but left them to fend for themselves socially sense of constraint Stay in class that they were born into Who Produces Culture and Why 0 Jurgen Habermas Public sphere how ideas are produced and exchanged in modern society According to the highest form of public life in capitalist society is private citizens assembled in a public body to confer about matters of general interest Citizens set aside their own interests as well as their wealth and status When it first emerged it was centered in a range of institutions such as Newspapers Pubs Social clubs Coffee shops Showed a citizens a way to criticize and influence the government Today Tea Party Occupy Wall Street movements National Rifle Associations or interest groups like AARP are some of the prominent groups in the public sphere o Counterpublics alternative public spheres through which they produce and circulate their own values beliefs and ideas 0 Networked public online public sphere Attract teens because they offer things that facetoface public settings cannot Allows for persistence o Theodor Adorno Culture industry popular music movies and other types of mass culture Complaint that pop culture encourages audiences to passively consume what they are watching reading or listening to rather than participating or engaging creatively with work Pop culture is an element of cultural democracy It is advertising rather than art Pop culture is user driven Art is tailored to reflect people39s preferences Is an element of cultural democracy Culture jamming people do not just passively accept corporate culture but intentionally disrupt and subvert it in a reaction to the common view that corps Have too much influence in social life Naomi Klein relies on constant exposure in order to mock it Jammers reject the idea that marketing has to be passively accepted as a oneway info flow Marshall McLuhan The medium is the message Different media encourage different ways of communicating of organizing power and of centralizing or decentralizing social activity Listening to the news and reading about it on the internet are two different experiences Reading on a website requires more direct engagement that listening to the radio does Sociologists say that the media is biased Change our notions of truth and our values Sociologists needs to pay attention to the changing patterns of media consumptions and engagement Age of Television Has been an age of irrelevance impotence and incoherence in public discourse A lot of what we see on the news barely has any actual relevance to our lives We become used to receiving info without us having to act on it in a specific way We spend less time watching the news The media environment is a torrent a nonstop flow of info that we are rarely disengaged from What is the Relationship between Media and Democracy 0 O The 3 most widely reads newspaper in the US today are 1 Wall Street Journal 2 USA Today 3 New York Times Robert Park Founded the Chicago School of sociology Was a newspaper journalist Also launched the modern social science of the city Studied immigrants to study social relations Most recently left home countries but still wanted to keep track of what is going on at home Before the internet TV radio Newspapers were the only one able to do this Foreign newspapers were popular in Chicago These addressed the experience of new groups Immigrants changed through the process of immigration the newspapers provided a new set of common themes stories characters and even vocab for making sense of the new world that they were living in News aimed at the common reader William Hearst saw the news as a form of entertainment Joseph Pulitzer saw the news as information The newspapers created a quotmental worldquot for migrants moving from the countryside to the city Helped closed the social distance between readers and emphasize their common circumstances Journalism about all a form of communication It is the production and dissemination of information of general public interest Journalists help to create and change news Edward Herman and Noam Chomsky Developed a quotpropaganda modelquot of the media quotThe role of the media is to inform entertain and ingrain citizens with national values and to suppress dangerous oppositional perspectivesquot Claims that private sector media in the US operate in the same way for 5 reasons 1 Concentration of media ownership in a small number of wealthy hands 2 Advertising is the primary source of revenue for the media 3 Media relies on gov officials corp leaders and public relations as sources for reporting 4 The power of governments and big business to discipline and threaten media is too critical 5 The ubiquity of anticommunist sentiment to be aroused Hold that the media tell the public what to believe and the messages that they communicate are biased ones Sociologists of the media argue that the news is slanted because of media framing the reporters cover a diversity of topics but only do so through certain existing storylines and narratives The relationship between media and democracy is likely to grow more troubled by 3 trends Fewer and fewer corps own more and more of the media outlets in the market 1 Markets controlled by a handful of firms are the norm in the media now a This makes it harder for new entrants to break into the market 2 Conglomeration describes a firm controlling multiple types of media functions a Like Disney owning various stations and print media operations b They can rely on their subsidiaries to promote the movie on its stations and tv programs 1 Known as synergy 1 Hypercommercialism a Standard for movies or shows to feature a product placement which is advertising when shots or mentions of a product are integrated not as a direct advertisement quotWere it left to me to decide whether we should have a governement without newspapers or newspapers without a government I should not hesitate a moment to prefer the latterquot Thomas Jefferson Citizen journalism has exploded in the last decade because barrier entry is low Internet activism Arab Spring uprising in the Middle East Tahrir Square demonstrations in Egpyt which overthrew the Mubarak regime Social networks are crucial to activists today
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