Management Notes For the Week of 4/18
Management Notes For the Week of 4/18 MGMT 300
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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Eric LaPree on Sunday April 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to MGMT 300 at University of North Dakota taught by Nikolaus Butz in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Principles of Management in Business, management at University of North Dakota.
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Date Created: 04/24/16
Management 300 Key terms Communication The transfer of information and understanding from person to person. Communication barrier Anything interfering with accurate communication between 2 people. Semantics The study and meaning of words. Jargon Terminology specific to a particular profession or group. Buzzwords Words designed to impress rather than inform. Linguistic style A person’s characteristic speaking patterns. Multicommunicating – represents the use of technology to participate in several interactions at the same time Telepresence technology – Highdefinition videoconference systems that simulate facetoface meetings between users. Telecommuting – Doing work that is generally performed in the office at home using a variety of information technology. Teleworking (virtual office) – Term to replace telecommuting because it encompasses not just working from home but from anywhere. Name migration – When a company sells its customer list to another company. Identity theft – Thieves hijack your name and identity and use your good credit rating to get cash or buy things. Communication The transfer of information and understanding from person to person Efficient communicator you can transmit the content component of a message accurately in the least amount of time Effective communicator the content and affective component of your intended message is accurately understood by others The communication process a sender transmits a message through media to a receiver who then responds Sender Person trying to share info Receiver person for whom the message is intended Message the name given to the info that the sender wants to send Medium 0 the pathway by which a message travels Noise any disturbance that interferes with the transmission of a message Encoding translating a message into understandable symbols or language Decoding interpreting and trying to make sense of the message Feedback the receiver expresses his reaction to the sender’s message Personal media options conversations, meetings, speeches, telephone calls, emails, memos, letters, bulletin boards, PowerPoints, videoconferencing, printed publications, videos etc. Mass media options public relations, press conference, advertising, news reports, radio, TV the internet etc. Medium richness indicates how well a particular medium conveys information and promotes learning The richer the media the better it is at conveying info What the receiver can tune into such as facial expressions, body language, and tone and voice Sender gets immediate feedback by tuning into cues from the receiver Rich medium best for nonroutine situations Used to avoid oversimplification if the situation is nonroutine situations Lean medium best for routine situations to avoid overloading Used to avoid overloading if the situation is routine Barriers Sender barrier no message gets sent Encoding barrier the message is not expressed correctly Medium barrier the communication channel is blocked Decoding barrier the recipient doesn’t understand the message Receiver barrier no message gets received Feedback barrier the recipient doesn’t respond enough Communication barrier Anything interfering with accurate communication between 2 people. 3 types: Physical barriers sound space and time Semantic barriers wording issues Personal barriers individual attributes hinder communication Semantics The study and meaning of words Jargon Terminology specific to a particular profession or group. Buzzwords Words designed to impress rather than inform. 9 personal barriers that contribute to miscommunication 1. Variable skills in communicating effectively 1. Some people have the natural gift of gab b. Variations in how information is processed and interpreted 1. If students don’t understand a concept is it their fault or the teacher’s? b. Variations in trustworthiness and credibility 1. If there is no trust the communicator will be focusing on defensive tactics b. Oversized egos 1. People with oversized egos discount advice from others b. Faulty listening skills 1. When one remembers asking a question, but not the answer they received b. Tendency to judge others’ messages 1. People tend to judge other’s statements from their own point of view, not theirs b. Inability to listen with understanding 1. Try to feel what the other person is saying b. Stereotypes and prejudices 1. Stereotype oversimplified beliefs about a certain group of people Nonverbal communication consists of messages sent outside of the written, spoken word Although experts do not agree, nonverbal communication makes up between 6595% of a message 6 ways nonverbal communication 1. Eye contact 1. Signals the beginning and end of the conversation 2. Expresses emotion 3. Monitor feedback 4. Express the type of relationship between people b. Facial expressions 1. Smile, frowns, surprises, disgust b. Body movement and gestures 1. Lean forward / backward 2. Folding arms 3. Nod head b. Touch 1. Good teams use touch more than bad teams b. Setting 1. Office furniture expresses accessibility of the person 2. Do you sit facing the door of the room b. Time 1. Keeping others waiting 2. One syllabus responses Linguistic style a person’s characteristic speaking patterns Pace, pausing, directness, word choice, use of questions, jokes stories, apologies and level of comfort speaking up in a group Soft skills incorporating emotion into relationships and communication Essential for building teams and developing flexibility Formally taught through executive training programs Formal communication channels Follows the chain of command and recognized as official Aligns with the company’s organizational chart 3 types of formal communication 1. Vertical (up and down the chain of command) 1. Downward communication flows from higher level to a lower level 2. Upward communication flows from a lower level to a higher level b. Horizontal (within and between work units) 1. Horizontal communication Flows from within and between work units, its main purpose is coordination 1. 3 potential roadblocks 1. Specialization that makes people focus just on their jobs alone 2. Rivalry between workers or work units 3. Lack of encouragement from management b. External (outside the organization) i. External communication flows between people inside and outside the organization Types of downward and communication Downward communication most downward communication involves one of the following kinds of information: Instructions related to particular job tasks Explanations about the relationship between two or more tasks A manager’s feedback about a subordinate’s procedures and practices Attempts to encourage a sense of mission and dedication to the organization’s goals Upward communication Most upward communication involves the following kinds of info Reports to progress on current projects Reports of unsolved problems requiring help from people higher up New developments affecting the work unit Suggestions for improvements Reports on employee attitudes and efficiency Informal communication channels develop outside the formal structure and do not follow the chain of command Skip hierarchal levels and cuts across lines and authority 2 types of informal channels 1. Grapevine unofficial communication system of the informal organization 1. Network of gossip and rumors 2. Grape vine characteristics 1. Faster than formal channels 2. 75% as accurate as formal channels 3. Used most often when employees feel threatened or are facing change b. Management by wandering around (MBWA) term used to describe a manager’s literally wandering around his organization and talking to people across all lines of authority Multicommunicating – represents the use of technology to participate in several interactions at the same time Telepresence technology – Highdefinition videoconference systems that simulate facetoface meetings between users. Telecommuting – Doing work that is generally performed in the office at home using a variety of information technology. Teleworking (virtual office) – Term to replace telecommuting because it encompasses not just working from home but from anywhere. Name migration – When a company sells its customer list to another company. Identity theft – Thieves hijack your name and identity and use your good credit rating to get cash or buy things. Multicommunicating – represents the use of technology to participate in several interactions at the same time Pro: allows workers to get more done Con: increase the chance of miscommunication or hurt feelings The more productive workers rely more on facetoface communication rather than technology Workers are more likely to trach each other when using technology rather than when communicating 8 norms of the millennial or internet generation 1. Freedom – The desire to experience new and different things, this norm which takes precedence over longterm commitments is expressed in a desire for flexible work hours and locations, to have a say in how things are done and for freedom of choice. 2. Customization – The desire to have personalized products and choices – customization covers everything from ring tone choices to Facebook layouts to lifestyle choices 3. Scrutiny – Not taking “Facts” and authority figures at face value – Knowing that there is both treasure and trash on the internet, this generation has learned to be skeptical, to check things out, and to ask probing questions. Candor and straight talk are favored. 4. Integrity – Trust in people, products, and employers is important – This generation cares about honesty, transparency, and keeping commitments – although they are elastic when it comes to pirating music and plagiarism 5. Collaboration – Relationships are of key importance – members of this generation value volunteering, know how to work and play with others, and are eager to offer opinions and suggestions. 6. Entertainment – keep things moving and interesting – a job should be both challenging and fun not a life sentence, for this multitasking generation the internet is not only a productivity tool and information source but also a personal communication device and fun tool of choice 7. Speed – instant feedback is expected – used to instantfeedback video games and nanosecond answers from google millennials prefer rapidfire texting, instant messaging and tweeting to the slower email. This leads them to urge faster decision making and feedback on job performance 8. Innovation – impatience for new and different user experience – in the workplace the traditional hierarchy is rejected in favor of work processes that encourage collaboration and creativity Videoconferencing (Teleconferencing) – uses video and audio links along with computers to enable people in different locations to see, hear, and talk to each other Fuels by cuts in travel budgets Can be set up in conventional conference room Does not surpassed the connections that can be made facetoface Telepresence technology – Highdefinition videoconference systems that simulate facetoface meetings between users. Requires a specially designed room More expensive than teleconferencing Telecommuting – Doing work that is generally performed in the office at home using a variety of information technology. 24% of rural business and 35% of nonrural business engage in telecommuting Warning: won’t work for those who need a social setting or for those who lack self motivation Benefits of telecommuting 1. Reduces capital costs 2. Increases flexibility and autonomy for workers 3. Provides competitive advantage when recruiting 4. Increases job satisfaction 5. Increases productivity 6. Ability to tap into traditional workers Teleworking (virtual office) – Term to replace telecommuting because it encompasses not just working from home but from anywhere Downside of digital age Security – A system of safeguards for protecting information technology against disasters, system failures, and unauthorized access that result in damage or loss Malicious software (malware), phishing (trying to trick people into giving info), viruses Privacy – the right of people not to reveal info about themselves Name migration – When a company sells its customer list to another company. Identity theft – Thieves hijack your name and identity and use your good credit rating to get cash or buy things. You can be your own worst enemy – posting compromising pictures or info. Emails Pros: Can send and receive messages 24/7 from practically anywhere Cons: Has been a decrease in all other forms of communication among coworkers – including greetings and informal conversations Emotions often are poorly communicated or miscommunicated via email messages The greatest use of email, the less connected coworkers reportedly feel Flooded inboxes – workers, get 200+ messages per day, but can only respond to 50 Smartphones – a device that can make a call, text. Access to email, and webpages As smart phones develop more features and make available more applications their importance will only increase Negative consequences and behavior Annoying – talking loud in public Unethical – sending pornographic photos Illegal – taking photos of exams Deadly – distracted driving 5 rules for smartphones 1. Keep the volume of your voice down while on the phone, no need to shout 2. Don’t force defenseless others on buses, in restaurants, and so on to have to listen to your phone conversations 3. Shut off your ringer during meetings and public performances, set the phone on vibrate and return calls at a discrete distance 4. Don’t text during a meeting or other conversation 5. Don’t dial/text while driving Social media – internetbased and mobile technologies used to generate interactive dialogue with members of a network 66% of adults in the US use social media Essence of social media is connectivity Businesses used social media to connect with: customers, suppliers, employees, potential talent, and key stakeholders Crowdsourcing – the practice of obtaining needed services, ideas or by soliciting contributions from a large group of people and especially the online community, such as Facebook and twitter users Tips for Facebook: Brand the product or organizational profile, but go light on sales message. Follow the service standards of your organization Use language relevant to your particular audience members and communicate with not at them. Show appreciation for them Remember all wall posts are public. Don’t write anything not intended for public consumption All updates should be relevant Take customersensitive issues off Facebook, into a private sphere, online or offline Ask questions on the wall posts but follow up and respond to any feedback received Downside of social media Distraction – technology isn’t the problem it is the people who let themselves get distracted Leaving the wrong impression – be careful with spontaneous announcements Replacing real conversation – online connections are no substitute for real facetoface conversations Managerial communication Talking 40% Reading 35% Writing 16% Listening 9% 66% of employees feel that management isn’t listening to them Hearing – physiological action of sound entering the ear and being registered by the brain Effective listening – concentrating on the message Active listening – the process of actively decoding and interpreting the verbal messages Can be learned, but requires a person’s full attention Appreciative style – Listening to be amused Empathic style – Tuning into the speaker’s emotions Takes cues from body language Comprehensive style – Focusing on the speakers logic Makes connections between ideas Related ideas to one’s own experiences Discerning style – Focusing in the main message Good when info is flowing evenly Evaluative style – Formulating question to challenge the speaker Listens analytically Will tune out is the conversation becomes illogical 6 keys to effective listening 1. Don’t rush to respond. Don’t think about what you’re going to say until the other person has finished talking 2. Judge content, not delivery. Don’t tune out someone because of his or her accent, clothing, mannerisms, personality or speaking style. 3. Ask questions, summarize remarks. Good listening is hard work. Ask questions to make sure you understand. Recap what the speaker said. 4. Listen for ideas. Don’t get diverted by details; try to concentrate on the main ideas 5. Resist distractions, show interest. Don’t get distracted by things other people are doing, Paperwork on your desk, things happening outside the window, television or radio, and the like. Show the speaker you are listening, periodically restating in your own words what you’ve heard. 6. Give a fair hearing – don’t shut out unfavorable info just because you hear a term – republican, democrat, union, big business, affirmative action, corporate welfare. That suggests ideas you aren’t comfortable with. Try to correct your biases. Being an effective reader Being an effective reader uses similar skills as being an effective listener Concentrate on the message Judge the content and not the delivery Lessons for managerial reading: Realize that speed reading doesn’t work Only work for material you are already familiar with Learn to streamline reading Be savvy about periodical books Minimize subscriptions and read summaries Transfer your reading load Asking an employee to skim something before you read it Make internal memos and email more efficient Have requests come in the first sentence Do topdown reading – SQ3R Survey, question, read, recite, and review 5 steps to better reading 1. Rate reasons to read. Rate your reasons to read 2. Question and predict answers. Formulate specific questions you want the reading to answer. This will give you reasons for reading – to get answers to your questions 3. Survey the big picture – survey the material to be read so you can get a sense of the whole. Take a few minutes to get an overview so that you’ll be better able to read with purpose. 4. Skim for main ideas – skimming the material is similar to surveying, except it’s on a smaller scale. You look for the essence of each subsection or paragraph 5. Summarize – summarize as you skim. Verbally restate or write notes of the main points, using your own words. Visualize or sketch the main points. Answer your initial questions Being an effective writer Don’t show ignorance No abbreviations, proofread everything Understand your strategy before you write 1. Most important to least important 2. Least controversial to most controversial 3. Negative to positive Start with your purpose Start your writing by stating the purpose Write simply, concisely and directly Use short words, sentences, and phrases when possible Telegraph your writing with a powerful layout Use highlighting, boldface text, italics, underlined text, and bullets when appropriate Don’t overuse, and don’t use all capital letters Use white space effectively Being an effective speaker The best speakers are good listeners first, because they are better able to determine what talking they need to do Tips for effective speaking 1. Tell them what you are going to say a. 515% of your speech b. Prepare the audience for what is to come 2. Say it a. 7590% of your speech b. Decide what 3 or 4 points are most crucial for your audience to remember c. Use transitions between points 3. Tell them what you said a. 510% of your speech b. Strong, upbeat, persuasive wrapup c. End with “Thank you”
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