Challenge from the East
Challenge from the East HIST 1011
Popular in World History, 1500-Present
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Estefania Notetaker on Monday March 2, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1011 at George Washington University taught by Professor Dane Kennedy in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 102 views. For similar materials see World History, 1500-Present in History at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 03/02/15
Challenge from the East February 3 2015 Lecture Notes A Opening remarks a Vermeer s Hat reading Tabaco introduced to the Chinese Today the Chinese are having a difficult time with tobacco and its health repercussions Theme significance of globalization b Early modern period establishing contact with India Africa and Asia but they are not establishing power over them i Presence vs power ii Almost immediately after 1492 Europeans establish presence in most of the world However they only establish power in the Americans iii They establish power in the oceans and navigation 1 Gives them an edge for sea trade c They land in the coasts and they establish relations i When Europeans arrive they confront societies and civilizations that are as if not more powerful sophisticated and elaborate than the Europeans ii In this sense these lands can t be exploited Instead mutual trade begins to occur d Until 18th century the political and economic balance of power between Europeans and the rest of the world lay with largest states i Many of these states remain powerful ii It is important NOT to assume that these states fall to European power That is not the case for the early modern period They remain strong in their own right B Muslim States a All politically centralized i They are landbased They engage in trade across oceans but their primary source of power and wealth come from the production of the peasant population ii Empire extract surplus from peasants and use it to defense border run bureaucracy etc iii Europeans encounter states that are impressive and developed b Ottoman Empire i Gain most power when they gain power of Constantinople renamed as Istanbul where Europe and Asia collide ii It s the one with most direct contact with Christian Europe 1 Muslim state that is close to European neighbors a Much more hybrid entity that other Muslim empires 2 Aya Sofya Church that comes under the control of the Ottoman and becomes Mosque a Building re ects the hybrid nature of Turkey iii Ottoman empire survived for a very long time 1 Well into the 19th century 2 At one point Ottoman Empire reaches the walls of Vienna iv lanassieries 1 Christian prisoners of war that had been acquired in the struggles in the Balkans a Once in control the Ottoman Empire asks that villages have to deliver a group of Christian boys i Slaver army to be trained b The best ofthese boys become well trained and educated They become part of the elite of Ottoman society i For about three centuries they are at the tope of the heat They become too powerful and are shut down by the Sultan v Diversity 1 Turks Kurds Iews etc 2 A diversity of people It works for about 600 years a This works because the communities are allowed to do as they please b Political control from Sultan but they do not have to adhere to particular laws c Safavid Empire i Iran extends into Afghanistan 1 Distinct language culture and identity 2 Rival of the Ottoman Empire a Variant of Islam i Sunni Islam ii Shia Islam ii Founded in 1501 survives to 1722 1 Contained due to the Ottoman and Mugul empires on the sides 2 Note on the word Slave derived from the word Slovs as slaves d Mughal Empire i Location Much of modern India ii Great challenge 1 Islamic minority rules over nonIslamic majority Majority composed mostly Hindu 2 How to maintain itself as an Islamic state without alienated majority a Akbar Allow the Hindu to be included into the society iii 1 ii b He tried to mix religions together i He has a conference to try to make a new religion that is all religions ii It doesn t work but it was a novel idea Mughal Empire survived until 18th empire iv Most prosperous of the empires 1 Indian peasantry productivity 2 Good that were in demand in the global market a Cotton goods pepper precious stones 3 Sign of wealth architecture palaces and buildings showing wealth and talents of the civilization e Church and State 39 Some historians who have argued one of the reasons one of their reasons why Islamic states failed to succeed was because there was not separation between church and states However in early modern period is actually the reverse 1 Comparing the Islamic and Christian states of the early modern period a b The Christian states are greatly controlled by the church Islamic states MughulSafavid there is not strong spiritual power in politics i Comparatively Christians did much more The Ottoman Empire was a little different the Sunni Islam thinks that the Sultan needs to be political and spiritual leaders i They are following the steps of the Byzantine who believe the political leader is the same as the religious leader ii Cicaro Papism Caesar and Pope are one person Political mixed with religious iii Ottoman empire and Christian empires 2 All Christian states attempt to create religious conformity in their population 9 a Spanish inquisition b Protestant reformation wants religious uniformity c Monarchy by divine right i No rulers claim to be popes but they reject power of the pope and assert their divine power 3 Caveats a In Islamic states nonMuslims are allowed to stay but not treated equally b They are subject to oppression and control However it is not like the liquidation of minorities as in Western Europe i Islamic states of the time They have to be more inclusive because diversity was a present theme in their societies ii Western states oppression of religious diversity because Christian states were on the defensive from Ottoman empire stepping on the toes of Vienna c Division of Church and State as western invention is true but it comes later and becomes dominant in Europe At this point Europe did not have church and state C East Asian States a China in D nas i When European established contact with China the Ming Dynasty was in control No long after the Ming dynasty starts to weaken 1 Japanese invade Korea The Ming doesn t have any capital and will to attack the Japanese They ask a military group to help drive out the Japanese The group takes out the Japanese and don t stop there They overthrow the regime 9 Qing regime ii New Qing regime 1 Reestablish the economy and begin trading with the Europeans a Trade In the driver seat when it comes to relationships with Europeans They establish the trader terms i Europeans only offer Silver While the Chinese offer silk tea etc b The result is the rst modern system of international economic exchange 2 Qing is very clever about the relationship in trade They restrict trade to the southern coast of China a Macau and Canton are two trading port cities that Europeans would be allowed to trade in i The key restriction to southern coastal city and Island 9 away from the mainland 9 maintain Chinese society away from European in uence b Japan Tokugawa Shongonate i Tokugawa class manages to establish control over a reasonable part of Japan They establish a military Shongonate and have an emperor who is only name because the Shongonate runs the country 1 Shongonate establishes the samurais who are ana army that help maintain order in Japan ii With trade 1 D Conclusions a All of these power resources and in uence to keep Europeans in check Europeans start to arrive Iapanese open to the arrival and establish trader ports Missionaries able to come in In 50 years Christianity became a viable religion The Shongonate backlashes on the Christian conversions cuts trade and prosecute converts Trade is limited mostly to the Dutch and continue restriction until the 19th century i European relationships with these empires remains on check until later ii Different from relationship with new world E Glossary P qorhrbgogra Aya Sofya Suleiman the Magnificient Ianissaries Sunni Shia Vasco de Gama 149798 CaesaroPapsim Akbar Samurai
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