Trade, Culture, and Pluralism
Trade, Culture, and Pluralism HIST 1011
Popular in World History, 1500-Present
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Estefania Notetaker on Monday March 2, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1011 at George Washington University taught by Professor Dane Kennedy in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 209 views. For similar materials see World History, 1500-Present in History at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 03/02/15
Trade Culture and Pluralism February 10 2015 A Civilizations and Barbarians a Civilized or Barbaric Terms that carry moral weight In this case peoples who lived in civilizations coined the two terms i Civilized 1 Agrarian societies that live in a fixed space 2 Tend to have large population density 9 create opportunity social differentiation 3 Hierarchical society 4 Urban centers where power tends to live ii Barbaric 1 Migratory 9 huntergather cultivation of animals 2 Egalitarian societies with less structure 3 No cities or large population density iii Part is a factor of geography 1 You don t have the resources to have an agricultural society 2 Central Asia and the Arabian Peninsula 9 areas where there was no space for agriculture 9 labeled as barbaric iv China and the Qing 9Empire founded by the Manchus barbarian from central Asia 1 Interesting dilemma how can barbarian manage to rule over empires a Same happens with Turk Ottoman Mongol and Safavid empires 9 2 Answer Pluralism toleration of difference in culture language m religion ethnicity B China under the Manchus a The role of religion i China religiously pluralistic Daoism Buddhism Islam ii No state religion but a set of moral and ethical principles that are broadly classified as Confucian principles 1 Manifested by Mandarin bureaucracy you have to pass exam on Confucian principles iii Confucian is not a religion 9 it as for respect for ancestors and history but it does not directly address religion b Manchus don t change Chinese culture or religion i Well they can t Culture is embedded and can t be overturned 1 Language Mandarin Chinese 2 Mandarin Bureaucracy 3 Confucianism ii One change 9 stylistic by introduce the Queue a Cutting hair in front and keep back in ponytail b Penalized with death if not followed c Instead they try to protect their own culture from Chinese society i Manchus prohibited from marrying Chinese ii Not allowed to do foot binding iii They want to retain their own characteristics d Expanding China s borders i Manchus want to make sure China is a strong as they can be ii Expanded 9Manchuria Inner Mongolia outer Mongolia Tibet East Turkestan e The most striking characteristic of Middle Eastern and Asian states 9 they don t make e ort to establish power beyond land i They know the oceans However for the most part they don t seek transoceanic a airs something in particular interest 1 They already have trade and contact as they like it 2 Threats from interior are more important a Defense and resources focused on threats from land barbarians 3 Their agriculture depends on land The best way to get money needed is tax peasantry and getting tributes from neighboring states ii Main threats came from the land not from the ocean iii As a result there is an independent world of seaborne trade C The Independent World of Seaborne Trade a Geography i Monsoon winds 1 One of the most predictable wind patterns in the world 2 Make Asian world of seaborne in the India Ocean possible 3 Provides real predictability for sailors and establishes the basis for seaborne trade 4 Key chokeholds 9 Gulf of Aden Malaccan straits Sunda straits Hormuz Straits a All are key chokeholds that gain incredibly significance for world trade b If power close trades in these areas it can seriously hurt other economies b Trade and traders i Goods Coffee beans ivory gold textiles pepper species clothes porcelain silks 1 Maldives islands Cowrie shells 9 currency 2 Singapore located in the straits of Malacca ii Cairo Genizah 1 Genizah Hebrew word for deposit 2 Depository used for Middle Ages Jews and then left behind 3 Discovered and used as a source of information on trade of the time iii Traders includes Arab Bengali Armenian japanese traders iv Trade 9 no regulation or government 1 Yet trade requires trust 2 How do they make it happen a Order thousand of miles away Trust that you will get paid to deliver the job b How to ensure trust i Merchant communities c Merchant Communities i Merchants who trade with people of their kind in different places 1 Arabs with Arabs Iews with Iews etc 2 Merchants within communities who break laws can be identified and exiled 3 Merchant trade with their own people and once it is in port they are able to exchange with people of other communities 4 Same language religious beliefs 9 common identity ii Malaccan State 1 A community of merchants gets together and creates a state 2 Governing board who oversaw affairs and provided means to protect shipping from pirates 3 Malaccan states 9 80 different languages spoke a Diversity and pluralism iii Pirates 1 Where Chokeholds 2 Today Sunda strait in Indonesia Somalia d Commerce and the Spread of Religion i Trade communities are also vehicles for the spread of religion 1 Mostly universalist Islam Christianity Buddhism a Trade greatly in uenced the spread b Example 9 Today greatest Muslim population is in Indonesia D Glossary a Pluralism Key Term engage a variety of different people b Queue c Cairo Genizah d Straits of Hormuz Malacca and Sunda Gulf of Aden
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