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American Revolutions April 21

by: Katrina Salamon

American Revolutions April 21 HIST 0848-002

Marketplace > Temple University > History > HIST 0848-002 > American Revolutions April 21
Katrina Salamon

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About this Document

These are the notes for American Revolutions on April 21.
American Revolutions
Silke Zoller
Class Notes
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katrina Salamon on Sunday April 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 0848-002 at Temple University taught by Silke Zoller in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see American Revolutions in History at Temple University.


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Date Created: 04/24/16
Post­9/11 society   What were the US’s goals for post 9/11 actions in the Middle East? Did they  succeed?  How have the wars since 9/11 influenced the US society and foreign policy?  Militarization o Wars became the post powerful US response to 9/11 o Neoconservative vision: democracy itself had a transformative power  Belief that the lack of representative institutions within  Afghanistan, Iraq, and other states drove terrorists to desperate  measures  Expansion of democratic institutions in middle east promised to  make the US more secure  Global War on Terror o Fought through covert operations, legislation, tie ins to wars in Iraq and  Afghanistan  o No conventional rules on warfare o Ongoing  Afghanistan o Began in 2001 as CIA and special forces missing to topple the Taliban and destroy al Qaeda  o Evolved Quickly to a UN backed mission to stabilize and rebuild  Afghanistan o US attention shifted increasingly towards Iraq, US lacked sufficient  resources to make progress in Afghanistan and the Taliban returned in  force  Iraq o Bush admin. Went into preemptive war in Iraq thinking that a uniquely  American story of transformation and democracy would emerge  o Sectarian violence skyrocketed o 2006 counterinsurgency program, “the surge” o little US influence on post 2004 Iraqi governments o December 2011: us withdrawals, sectarian violence increases, rise of “al  Qaeda in Iraq”  Afghanistan o 2006: UN agreement: “the Afghanistan compact” o 2009 forward: president Obama narrows war’s goals, sends money and  troops o Changing measure of success: disrupt, dismantle, and defeat al Qaeda and  prevent Afghanistan from being a safe haven for international terrorism.   Human Costs o Post 9/11 war led to thousands of US deaths and 10s of thousands of  injuries o These numbers were actually small compared to other wars o 1/3 of returning veterans diagnosed with mental health issues o ½ of been awarded disability benefits for either a physical of  psychological injury incurred during service  Financial cost o Estimated sum for war in Afghanistan: $725 billion over 13 years  94% of all dollars spent sent to dept. of defense  6% went to state dept. and dept. of veteran’s aid o Ongoing expenses: further commitments in Afghanistan and Iraq,  veteran’s care o Efforts funded through borrowing rather than by increasing revenues— creates additional long term costs  Between 2001 and 2013, the US added $9 trillion to its national  debt  Social Changes o Celebration of veterans and their services o US popular culture in general  Cultivated and encouraged messy popular understandings of US  military action abroad  Implicitly connected all post­9/11 military action to the attacks on  9/11 Final Exam: Same format as the midterm Not cumulative, just the 2  half Tuesday, May 3, at 8 am.  5 essay questions (more than 5 available questions, choose 5) answer each with at least a 3 paragraph essay use her study guide as a guide for my study soup study guide  Example Question: “What was the relationship between the US and al Qaeda before the  events of September 11, 2001? Trace how it changed over time.”  Non state actor  Soviet invasion of Afghanistan and US support for Mujahedeen  Attacks throughout the 1990’s (world trade center in 1993, embassy in 98, etc.)  Fundamental Islamism  Al Qaeda starts targeting the US during the gulf war: 


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