American Revolutions April 21
American Revolutions April 21 HIST 0848-002
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katrina Salamon on Sunday April 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 0848-002 at Temple University taught by Silke Zoller in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see American Revolutions in History at Temple University.
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Date Created: 04/24/16
Post9/11 society What were the US’s goals for post 9/11 actions in the Middle East? Did they succeed? How have the wars since 9/11 influenced the US society and foreign policy? Militarization o Wars became the post powerful US response to 9/11 o Neoconservative vision: democracy itself had a transformative power Belief that the lack of representative institutions within Afghanistan, Iraq, and other states drove terrorists to desperate measures Expansion of democratic institutions in middle east promised to make the US more secure Global War on Terror o Fought through covert operations, legislation, tie ins to wars in Iraq and Afghanistan o No conventional rules on warfare o Ongoing Afghanistan o Began in 2001 as CIA and special forces missing to topple the Taliban and destroy al Qaeda o Evolved Quickly to a UN backed mission to stabilize and rebuild Afghanistan o US attention shifted increasingly towards Iraq, US lacked sufficient resources to make progress in Afghanistan and the Taliban returned in force Iraq o Bush admin. Went into preemptive war in Iraq thinking that a uniquely American story of transformation and democracy would emerge o Sectarian violence skyrocketed o 2006 counterinsurgency program, “the surge” o little US influence on post 2004 Iraqi governments o December 2011: us withdrawals, sectarian violence increases, rise of “al Qaeda in Iraq” Afghanistan o 2006: UN agreement: “the Afghanistan compact” o 2009 forward: president Obama narrows war’s goals, sends money and troops o Changing measure of success: disrupt, dismantle, and defeat al Qaeda and prevent Afghanistan from being a safe haven for international terrorism. Human Costs o Post 9/11 war led to thousands of US deaths and 10s of thousands of injuries o These numbers were actually small compared to other wars o 1/3 of returning veterans diagnosed with mental health issues o ½ of been awarded disability benefits for either a physical of psychological injury incurred during service Financial cost o Estimated sum for war in Afghanistan: $725 billion over 13 years 94% of all dollars spent sent to dept. of defense 6% went to state dept. and dept. of veteran’s aid o Ongoing expenses: further commitments in Afghanistan and Iraq, veteran’s care o Efforts funded through borrowing rather than by increasing revenues— creates additional long term costs Between 2001 and 2013, the US added $9 trillion to its national debt Social Changes o Celebration of veterans and their services o US popular culture in general Cultivated and encouraged messy popular understandings of US military action abroad Implicitly connected all post9/11 military action to the attacks on 9/11 Final Exam: Same format as the midterm Not cumulative, just the 2 half Tuesday, May 3, at 8 am. 5 essay questions (more than 5 available questions, choose 5) answer each with at least a 3 paragraph essay use her study guide as a guide for my study soup study guide Example Question: “What was the relationship between the US and al Qaeda before the events of September 11, 2001? Trace how it changed over time.” Non state actor Soviet invasion of Afghanistan and US support for Mujahedeen Attacks throughout the 1990’s (world trade center in 1993, embassy in 98, etc.) Fundamental Islamism Al Qaeda starts targeting the US during the gulf war: