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Chapter 13 Notes

by: Megan Koh

Chapter 13 Notes POLS 1101

Megan Koh
Georgia Tech
GPA 4.0

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This chapter covers Voting and Political Parties. As with all of my study guides, these notes contain concentrated details from the chapter, all definitions, and answers to the questions at the ...
Political Science
Sara Henderson
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Megan Koh on Sunday April 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to POLS 1101 at Clayton State University taught by Sara Henderson in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 29 views.


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Date Created: 04/24/16
Chapter 13 Megan Koh • Two-party system: a party system dominated by two major parties that win the vast majority of elections.▯ • Multiparty system: a political system in which many different parties are organized on the basis of political ideologies, economic interests, religion, geography, or positions on a single issue or set of issues. ▯ Functions of Political Parties▯ 1. Contesting elections▯ 2. Recruiting and nominating candidates▯ 3. Providing a framework for voters to make vote choices▯ 4. Providing organizations for the operation of government▯ ▯ • Fifteenth amendment: the amendment to the Constitution that guaranteed the franchise regardless of race, color, or any previous condition of servitude.▯ • Poll tax: the requirement that individuals pay a fee before being allowed to vote.▯ • Literacy test: the requirement that individuals prove that they can read and write before being allowed to vote.▯ • Nineteenth amendment: the constitutional amendment that guarantees women equal voting rights.▯ • Twenty-third amendment: the constitutional amendment providing electoral votes to the District of Columbia, thus giving Distract residents the right to vote in presidential elections.▯ Twenty-fourth amendment: the constitutional amendment that outlaws poll taxes.▯ • • Twenty-sixth amendment: the constitutional amendment that lowered the voting age to 18 in all local, state, and federal elections.▯ ▯ Voting in America compared with other democracies:▯ • There are a large number of elections inAmerica, making the opportunity to participate less of a novelty.▯ • Tuesdays are workdays.▯ • Voting in the United States usually requires advance registration.▯ • Over the past 50 years, perceptions both that participation can make a difference in what government does (that is, voters’ sense of “internal efficacy”) and that government is responsive to the people (“external efficacy”) have declined.▯ • Extensions of the franchise lead to shot-term declines in turnout.▯ • Voting in the United States is not compulsory.▯ • The decline in “social capital”.▯ • Social capital: the “social connectedness” of a community or the extend to which individuals are socially integrated into their community.▯ ▯ • Elections: the political mechanism that ensures that the majority will rule.▯ • Direct primary election: an open election, rather than an election by party leaders, to choose candidates for the general election.▯ • Critical election: an election that produces sharp changes in patterns of party loyalty among votes.▯ • Franchise (suffrage): the right to vote.▯ • Universal suffrage: the idea that all citizens in a nation have the right to vote.▯ ▯ Types of protest:▯ Chapter 13 Megan Koh 1. Legal protest▯ 2. Civil disobedience▯ 3. Violent protest▯ ▯ • National party convention: a large meeting that draws together party delegates from across the nation to choose (or formally affirm the selection of) the party’s presidential and vice presidential candidates.▯ • National party organization: the institution through which political parties exist at the national, state, and local levels, primarily focused on articulating policy positions, raising money, organizing volunteers, and providing service to candidates.▯ • National committee: the committee that oversees the conduct of a party’s presidential campaign and develops strategy for congressional elections.▯ • National committee chair: the head of the national committee for one of the two major parties.▯ ▯ How do Americans vote?▯ 1. Paper ballots▯ 2. Australian secret ballot▯ 3. Voting machine▯ 4. Punch cards▯ 5. Optical scan ballots▯ 6. Electronic voting▯ ▯ OTHER DEFINITIONS:▯ Political parties: organizations that seek to win elections for the purpose of influencing the • outputs of government.▯ • Party platform: a document outlining the party’s position on important policy issues.▯ • Dealignment: a decline in voter attachment to parties and in clarity of party coalitions.▯ • Party identification: the psychological attachment that an individual has to a particular party.▯ • Normal vote: the percentage of voters that can be expected with reasonable certainty to cast a ballot for each of the two major political parties.▯ • Divided government: split-party control of Congress and the presidency.▯ • Proportional representation: a system of electing a national legislature in which the percentage of the vote that a party receives is reflected int he number of seas that the party occupies.▯ • Representative democracy: system of government in which citizens elect the individuals who are responsible for making and enforcing public policy.▯ • MotorVoter law: the federal law mandating that when an individual applies for or renews a state driver’s license, the state must also provide that individual with voter registration materials.▯ • Voter turnout: the number of people who turn out to vote as a percentage of all those eligible to vote.▯ ▯ TEXTBOOK QUESTIONS/ANSWERS:▯ 1. In 1796 and 1800, Thomas Jefferson ran for president as a candidate from the Democratic- Republican party.▯ 2. The modern Democratic Party’s first successful attempt to win the modern presidency occurred in 1828 with the victory ofAndrew Jackson.▯ Chapter 13 Megan Koh 3. All of the following are considered to be critical realigning elections except Jefferson’s victory in 1800.▯ 4. Party identification is measured by asking voters which party they support.▯ 5. The condition when American government is characterized by split-party control of Congress and the presidency is known as divided government.▯ 6. Governments that rely on proportional representation as a means of selecting a national legislature and ruling government most typically have a multiparty system.▯ 7. The most successful third party in U.S. presidential election history, whose candidate received more votes that the Republican Party candidate, was Theodore Roosevelt’s Bull Moose Party in 1912.▯ 8. In the modern era of elections, national parties have the least amount of influence in nominating candidates for office▯ 9. Direct primary elections make it easier for candidates to bypass the parties in a pathway to the party nomination.▯ 10. The fifteen amendment declares “the right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be abridged by the United States or any state on account of race, color, or any previous condition of servitude”.▯ 11. The 1857 U.S. Supreme Court ruling that slaves were property and could not become legal citizens of the United States, thus precipitating the CivilWar, was Scott v. Sanford.▯ 12. 65-75 year olds are most likely to turnout to vote in an election.▯ 13. A mayoral race is not an example of a “high-stimulus” election.


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