Chapter 14 Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Megan Koh on Sunday April 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to POLS 1101 at Clayton State University taught by Sara Henderson in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views.
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Date Created: 04/24/16
Chapter 14 Megan Koh • Presidential primary: a state-wide election to select delegates who will represent a state at the party’s national convention.▯ • Open primary: an election that allows voters to choose on the day of the primary election the party in which they want to vote.▯ • Closed primary: an election that requires voters to declare their party aﬃliation ahead of time. ▯ Five Stages of the Presidential Selection Process▯ 1. The predomination campaign▯ 2. The nomination campaign▯ 3. The national conventions▯ 4. The general election campaign▯ 5. The electoral college decision▯ ▯ • Hard money: donations made directly to political candidates and their campaigns that must be declared with the name of the donor (which then becomes public knowledge).▯ • Soft money: money not donated directly to a candidate’s campaign, but rather to a political advocacy group or a political party for “party-building” activities. ▯ • Safe seat: a congressional seat from a district that includes a high percentage of voters from one of the major parties.▯ • Marginal seat: a seat in a congressional district that has relatively similar numbers of Democratic and Republican voters. ▯ THE GENERAL ELECTION CAMPAIGN▯ 1. Incumbent Race v.s. Open Election▯ • Incumbent race: general election race pitting a person currently holding the oﬃce against a challenger.▯ • Open election: general election race in which neither candidate is the incumbent.▯ 2.The choice of a vice president candidate▯ 3. Gathering a winning coalition of states▯ 4. The presidential debate▯ 5. The advertising▯ 6. The electoral college vote▯ • Electoral college: the constitutional mechanism by which presidents are chosen. Each state is allocated electoral college votes based on the sums of that state’s U.S. senators and House members.▯ • Electors: individuals appointed to represent a state’s presidential vote in the electoral college; in practice, voters in presidential elections vote for a slate of electors committed to a particular candidate, rather than voting directly for the candidate.▯ • Unit rule: the system in 48 states by which the candidate who wins the most votes among popular votes cast for president in a state receives all the electoral votes from that state; also known as the “winner-take-all” system. ▯ OTHER DEFINITIONS:▯ • Pre-nomination campaign: the political season in which candidates for president begin to explore the possibility of running by attempting to raise money and garner support.▯ • The invisible primary: the competition among candidates seeking the party nomination for frontrunner status prior to the primaries and caucuses.▯ Chapter 14 Megan Koh • Caucus: a method of choosing party nominees in which party members attend local meetings at which they choose delegates committed to a particular candidate.▯ • Nomination campaign: the political season in which the two major parties hold primaries and caucuses in all the states to choose party delegates committed to speciﬁc candidates.▯ • Frontloading: the recent trend of states moving their primaries and caucuses to earlier in the year to attract greater attention from the candidates and the media.▯ • Battleground states: states identiﬁed as oﬀering either major-party candidate a reasonable chance for victory in the electoral college.▯ Federal Election CampaignAct (FECA): the federal legislation passed in 1971 that established • disclosure requirements and restricted individual campaign contributions.▯ • Federal Election Commission (FEC): the agency created in 1974 to enforce federal election laws.▯ • Independent campaign expenditure: political donations that PACs or individuals spend to support campaigns, but do not directly contribute to the campaigns.▯ • Buckley v.Valeo: the 1976 Supreme Court opinion that held that spending money to inﬂuence elections is protected First Amendment speech, and that prohibited limitations on independent expenditures or personal money spent by candidates on their own campaigns.▯ • Bipartisan Campaign ReformAct (BCRA) of 2002: also called the McCain-FeingoldAct, the federal legislation that (1) restricted soft money spend by political parties, (2) regulated expenditures on ads that refer to speciﬁc candidates immediately before an election, and (3) increased limits on hard money donated directly to candidates and their campaigns.▯ • Midterm congressional elections: congressional elections held midway between successive presidential elections.▯ • Coattail effect: the potential beneﬁt that successful presidential candidates oﬀer to congressional candidates of the same political party during election years.▯ • Power of incumbency: the phenomenon by which incumbent members of Congress running for reelection are returned to oﬃce at an extremely high rate.▯ • Franking privilege: the traditional right of members of Congress to mail materials to their constituents without paying postage.▯ ▯ TEXTBOOK QUESTIONS/ANSWERS:▯ 1. In the presidential election of 1800,Thomas Jeﬀerson and Aaron Burr had the same number of electoral votes, thus sending the election to the House of Representatives.▯ 2. The state that held the ﬁrst direct primary election for the party nomination was Florida.▯ 3. The Twenty-secondAmendment limits the oﬃce of president to two terms.▯ 4. The 2012 predomination campaign for the GOP included all of the following candidates, except John McCain.▯ 5. A state nomination contest in which party members are invited to attend local meetings at which they choose delegates who make a commitment to a candidate for the party nomination is a caucus.▯ 6. Iowa holds the ﬁrst caucus of the presidential nominating process.▯ 7. Richard Daley was the political boss in Chicago who used police force against protestors during the 1968 Democratic National Convention.▯ 8. The vice presidential candidate chosen to run with President Barack Obama was Joe Biden.▯ 9. Ohio was a battleground state in the 2012 presidential election▯ 10. Texas gained the most net votes in the electoral college as a result of the 2010 census.▯ 11. Donations made directly to political candidates and their campaigns that must be declared with the name of the donor are known as hard money.▯ Chapter 14 Megan Koh 12. An incumbent member of Congress who is running for reelection on average stands about 90% chance of being reelected.▯ 13. The electoral beneﬁt that a presidential candidate provides to congressional candidates of the same party during a presidential election is known as the coattail effect.
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