New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Chapter 15 Notes

by: Megan Koh

Chapter 15 Notes POLS 1101

Megan Koh
Georgia Tech
GPA 4.0

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

This chapter covers Policies. As with all of my study guides, these notes contain concentrated details from the chapter, all definitions, and answers to the questions at the end of the chapter. ...
Political Science
Sara Henderson
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Political Science

Popular in Department

This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Megan Koh on Sunday April 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to POLS 1101 at Clayton State University taught by Sara Henderson in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views.


Reviews for Chapter 15 Notes


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 04/24/16
Chapter 15 Megan Koh • Public policy: the set of laws, regulations, and rules that affects the whole of society.▯ • Social policy: rules, regulations, and policymaking pertaining to the quality of life, welfare, and relations of human beings in the United States. ▯ Five stages of policy:▯ 1. The recognition/definition stage▯ —in which objectives to be fulfilled and goals to be pursued through policy are first identified and defined according to hot the problem fits within existing policy categories, and then prioritized.▯ 2. The formulation stage▯ —in which various alternative courses for this policy are considered and a preferred course is selected.▯ 3. The adoption/legitimation stage▯ —in which the policy under consideration assumes the authority of law through ratification by Congress or through regulations issued by the relevant administrative agencies. 4. The implementation stage▯ —in which a bureaucratic agency translates law into action through the adoption of administrative regulations and the dedication of agency resources to carry out the policy.▯ 5. The evaluation stage▯ —in which the policy is assessed for its worth and effectiveness in meeting its original objectives and goals. ▯ FISCAL POLICY▯ • Fiscal policy: decisions by the federal government that relate to raising revenue through taxation and spending the revenue that is thereby generated.▯ • Inflation: the overall general upward price movement of goods and services in an economy, normally measured by the consumer price index (CPI).▯ • Recession: an economic slowdown characterized by high unemployment, reduced productivity, or other negative economic indicators.▯ • Laissez-faire economics: fiscal policy theory that favors minimal intervention in the nation’s economy.▯ • Keynesian economic theory: fiscal policy theory that favors government taxation and spending during difficult economic times.▯ • Supply-side economics: economic theory that favors cutting taxes as a way of increasing conic productivity.▯ ▯ Assessing the economy’s performance:▯ 1. Gross domestic product▯ • Gross domestic product (GDP): an estimate of the total money value of all the goods and services produced in the United States in a one-year period.▯ 2. Consumer price index▯ • Consumer price index (CPI): an index of prices for goods and services regularly traded in the U.S. economy.▯ 3. The unemployment rate▯ 4. The budget deficit/surplus▯ Budget deficit: the amount of money spent by the U.S. government beyond that which it • collects in taxes and other revenue in a single year.▯ • Budget surplus: the amount by which the U.S. government’s revenue exceeds its spending in a given fiscal year.▯ 5. The national debt▯ • National debt: the total sum of the federal government’s outstanding debt obligations.▯ Chapter 15 Megan Koh 6. The Dow Jones IndustrialAverage▯ 7. Housing starts▯ 8. Consumer confidence index (CCI)▯ 9. Balance-of-trade figures▯ ▯ House appropriations bills:▯ 1. Agriculture, Rural Development, Food and DrugAdministration, and related agencies▯ 2. Commerce, Justice, Science, and related agencies▯ 3. Defense▯ 4. Transportation, Housing and Urban Development, and related agencies▯ 5. Energy and Water Development▯ 6. State, Foreign Operations, and related programs▯ 7. Homeland Security▯ 8. Interior, Environment, and related agencies▯ 9. Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education▯ 10. Financial Services and general government▯ 11. Legislative branch▯ 12. Military Quality of Life andVeteransAffairs▯ ▯ Taxation policy:▯ • Redistributive tax policies: taxation policies that aim to provide a social safety net to meet the minimum physical needs of citizens.▯ • Distributive tax policies: taxation policies intended to promote the interest of all classes equally.▯ • Progressive tax: a tax whose effective rate on an individual’s income increases as the person’s income rises.▯ • Flat tax: a tax policy that draws money from all entities at the same proportion of their income.▯ ▯ Spending policy:▯ • Budget authority: the power of federal departments and agencies to incur obligations to sepdn or lend money.▯ • Outlays: the amount of money a government agency will actually spend during a fiscal year▯ • Mandatory spending: federal government spending that is not controlled by annual budget decisions; included entitlements such as Medicare and Social Security.▯ • Discretionary spending: forms of federal government spending that Congress can modify or eliminate in any given year, including spending on education, the environment, and national defense.▯ ▯ MONETARY POLICY▯ • Monetary policy: regulation of the money supply and interest rates by a central bank, such as the U.S. Federal Reserve Board, in order to control inflation and stabilize the currency.▯ • Federal Reserve System: the central banking system of the United States, which controls the nation’s money supply.▯ • Federal Reserve Board: the Federal Reserve System’s Board of Governors, which votes on monetary policy in the United States, supervises the nation’s banks by setting rules for the 12 Federal Reserve Banks, and engages in open market operations.▯ Chapter 15 Megan Koh • Discount rate: the rate (expressed as a percentage) that all Federal Reserve member banks and other depository institutions will be charged by the Federal Reserve Banks to borrow short-term funds.▯ • Open market operations: the buying and selling of government securities by the Federal Reserve Board as a means of controlling the national money supply.▯ • Reserve requirement: the minimum liquid assets each bank must keep on hand to back customer loans.▯ ▯ CRIME POLICY▯ • Crime control model: criminal justice policymaking model that views the controlling of criminal behavior as the system’s most important function.▯ • Due process model: criminal justice policymaking model that views the attainment of justice- which included protection of the innocent - as the principal goal of the system.▯ ▯ HEALTH CARE POLICY▯ • Universal health care: national health care system in which full access to health care is provided to citizens at government expense.▯ • Patient Protection andAffordable CareAct of 2010 (PPACA): the main federal legislation passed in 2010 that overhauled the health care system by expanding Medicaid and guaranteeing health care coverage for select groups of citizens.▯ • Health Maintenance Organizations (HMOs): prepaid group practice arrangements entered into by doctors and other health professionals that attempt to limit costs by charging customers flat monthly rates with little or no deductibles.▯ ▯ Welfare State and Programs for the Poor:▯ • Welfare state: social system in which the state assumes a considerable degree of responsibility for citizen in matters of health care, employment, education, and retirement income.▯ • Capitalism: economic system in which all or most of the means of production are privately owned under competitive conditions.▯ • Socialism: economic system in which all or most of the means of production are owned by the community as a whole.▯ • Medicare: federal program that provides health insurance for the elderly.▯ • Medicaid: federal program that provides limited health care services to the poor.▯ ▯ TEXTBOOK QUESTIONS/ANSWERS:▯ 1. The stage of the policymaking process where the proposed policy assumes the authority of law is the adoption stage.▯ 2. The federal bureaucracy is primarily responsible for the implementation stage.▯ 3. The fiscal theory that favors stimulus spending by government as a way to spark economic activity is Keynesian economics.▯ 4. The total money value of all goods and services produced in the United States in a given one-year period is the gross domestic product.▯ 5. A tax that exacts a large percentage of income from lower-wage earners than higher-wage earners is a regressive tax.▯ 6. The Federal Reserve Board determines monetary policy.▯ 7. The minimum liquid assets that banks must keep on hand to back customer loans is called the reserve requirement.▯ Chapter 15 Megan Koh 8. The model of criminal justice policymaking that emphasizes the rights of the accused is the due process model.▯ 9. Medicaid provides money for health services for those in poverty.▯ 10. The 1996 Welfare Reform Law that replacedAFDC withTANF placed a five-year limit on welfare payments, required welfare recipients to work, and scaled back the food stamps program.▯ 11. The Social Security system was created under the Franklin Delano Roosevelt administration.▯ 12. The Social Security system is funded through payroll taxes on employers and employees.▯ 13. The element of the 2010 health care reform laws that requires the purchase of health insurance is known as the individual mandate.


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Allison Fischer University of Alabama

"I signed up to be an Elite Notetaker with 2 of my sorority sisters this semester. We just posted our notes weekly and were each making over $600 per month. I LOVE StudySoup!"

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.