New World Societies
New World Societies HIST 1011
Popular in World History, 1500-Present
One Day of Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Estefania Notetaker on Tuesday March 3, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1011 at George Washington University taught by Professor Dane Kennedy in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 78 views. For similar materials see World History, 1500-Present in History at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 03/03/15
New World Societies February 19 2015 I Context Americas the first location for wide scale colonization by European a With time people of Europe populate all parts of the world It starts with America b New societies in America9 i Neoeuropes 1 LAlfred Crosby Ecological Imperialism places where European immigrants recreate the world they have left behind in Europe 2 They recreate 9 social structures political institutions cultural practices crops etc a Problem9new society is not wholly quotEuropeanquot ii Hybrid societies 1 Idea of NeoEuropean 9simplifies what is a more complex process of exchanges and mixtures a Not only native Americans and Europeans but also African 2 Europeans create societies that benefit them a However they do so in ways that fit the new locations and people b Europeans have to engagement in adjustment and accommodation 9 Creation of Hybridsocieties i Resemble Europe but carry parts of Native and African societies iii Two critical factors that need to be addressed for success in colonization 9 1 Resources Discover or develop natural resources that are suited for economic exploitation 2 Labor Find labor source to exploit the resources iv American societies are a mixing of Europe and other 9 new societies 11 Spanish America a Spanish find great success early on 9 these create high expectations i Thinking they will keep finding great empires with ready available gold and solver b Mixed Blessings of mining i Blessing Potosi 9 Mountain of silver 1 Spanish found and exploit it By early 16005 Potosi is one of the biggest cities in the early America a By 1625 120000 people 2 Gold and silver shipped back to Spain 9 fuel economic power of Spain a Some sent to china for 3 Silver created the first genuine global commer ii Curse Dependency 1 Spain becomes heavily dependent on gold and silver 2 However these precious metals don t last forever 3 Agriculture What to do then with land a Give them land to the lords They create Haciendas 9 i Ruled by quasifeudal lords that engage in selfsufficient agriculture 1 Not very efficient ii They need labor 9 Native Americas 1 Encomineda system used in haciendas like serfdom Peasants who leave in lands are obliged to give portion of their crops and their labor to lord c Forced Labor i Mines 9 Employ a practice that was employed by Inca 1 Mita system communities to provide a portion of their young men to work for their state a Inca used it to build monuments and Spanish use it to work on the minds b This is Force labor but not slavery i m someone who can be bought and sold in the market place ii m people can t be sold Their service can be exploited for limited period of time but they are still free people c Is pretty much the samebut the market difference counts 2 Since slavery was illegal Native Americans could not be enslaved 9 This is how they get around 3 Later 9 start to employ African slaves a Mostly in the Islands not mainland d Creole Society i Cities in the new world 1 Central plaza with church and state authority 2 Grid system re ection indigenous tradition ii Create a society that s ihierarchical 1 Power in a King9 his representatives as lords b Catholic church9 churches in the new world 2 Still this was not is not Neospain a Most people who come 9 young men i They want to make a killing and go home Early conquistadores do that Later that doesn t happen So they stay ii Men stay and marry Native American women 1 Start eating Native American foods 2 Using native American practices b Result 9 Hybrid society Creole Society i Example Catholic Church powerful but the Native American traditions shape traditions 1 Appearance of the virgin 9 virgin de Guadalupe different from European virgin a Similar to Aztec goddesses 2 El Dia de los Muertos a Catholic traditions and Aztec festival ii Creole Society a bit of native and Spanish Distinct identity from Spanish in Europe 111 English America a The establishment i Early 13 colonies 9 smaller land space ii English come to the new world a century after the Spanish iii Jamestown 1606 9 first successful English establishment 1 Barely a success First couple of years 9 threat of collapse 2 With time it begins to rise iv Less Centralized 9 English king does not plays such central in overseeing colonies 1 Royal companies young entrepreneurs are giving opportunity to colonization Namely Virginia Company b Search for sustainable economy i Economies9 1 No Aztec or Inca Kingdom 9 Colonist decides that they are going to avoid conquistadores and have entire families come to the Americas 2 Result 9 family units established across the colonies a Why whole families i Limitations of the new world ii The English have colonized before Ireland 9 Already had a strategy iii The issue of labor 9 they can t get native labor Not the control that the Spanish do ii Resources 9 1 Virginia Colonies asked to plant mulberries trees 9 Why Silk It didn t work out But they eventually get it right 9 Tobacco coffee tea chocolate opium Carolinas Indigo rice New England timber Pennsylvania wheat and grains Georgia cotton iii It takes times but the English establish viable economic enterprises sustainable economies c Search for cheap labor i Household labor Families coming to the colonies and reproducing9 children 1 Remains available form of labor North ii Initially 9 English indentured labor iii Finally 9 African slavery 1 Very useful for large scale plantation agriculture South a Indigo rice cotton d English Colonial Culture i Settler culture in colonies different from Creole culture of Spanish America 1 Religion no religious institutions with centralizing in uence Massachusetts 9 large puritan groups Pennsylvania 9 Quakers Maryland 9 heaven for Catholics No centralization 9 lack of religious conformity 9 separation of church and state e Result No United States possible with a state church 2 Native Americans 9 remain outside with societies a English don t expropriate their labor b Unlike in Spanish America 9 very little intermarriage i English have sex with slaves and natives but they don t marry them c Endogamy 9 marrying within one s group d Result9 Creates racial divisions that live on for generations IV Other Colonial American Societies a French amp Portuguese Both are catholic countries and the church establishes with the Treaty of Tordesillas helps mandate their colonial endeavors b French 9Canada and New Orleans i Canada Furs 914990 9962 1 You don t need plantation economy 9 you do it in collaboration with Native American communities 2 Association and intermarriage with native American communities c Portuguese 9 Brazil i Sugar slavery 1 Initially 9 send out enslaving parties within brazil 2 Then9 rely on African slaves V Terms a Potosi b Mestizo c Encomienda VI Exam a 2 Essay questions Answer 1 i Ability to make case and support with evidence who what when in relevance Historical significance b 10 IDs Answers 6