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CE 3510-Chapter 1 and Chapter 2 Notes

by: Aaron Bowshier

CE 3510-Chapter 1 and Chapter 2 Notes CIVILEN 3510

Marketplace > Ohio State University > Engineering and Tech > CIVILEN 3510 > CE 3510 Chapter 1 and Chapter 2 Notes
Aaron Bowshier
GPA 3.52
CIVILEN 3510 - Civil Engineering Materials
Shive Chaturvedi

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**7 for 1** How about 7 weeks for the price of 1?! These are the in-class lecture notes for CE 3510. If you are in need to just fill in the rest of your blank spaces in your notes, this is perfec...
CIVILEN 3510 - Civil Engineering Materials
Shive Chaturvedi
Class Notes
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This 23 page Class Notes was uploaded by Aaron Bowshier on Tuesday March 3, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CIVILEN 3510 at Ohio State University taught by Shive Chaturvedi in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 206 views. For similar materials see CIVILEN 3510 - Civil Engineering Materials in Engineering and Tech at Ohio State University.

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Date Created: 03/03/15
Civil Enginee Materials CE 451 CIVIL ENGINEERING MATERIALS SHAN SOMAYAJI Introduction to Materials 1 Four Types of Materials SOLID LIQUID GAS PLASMA 11 Classes of Materials Metals amp Alloys Iron and steel Aluminum and alloys Copper and alloys Ceramics and Glasses Alumina Al203 emery sapphire Magnesia MgO Silica Si02 glasses and silicates Silicon Carbide SiC Silicon Nitride Si3N4 Cement and Concrete Polymers and Polymer Based Polyethylene PE poyurethane poystyrene poyviny chloride PVC Nyon Epoxies rubbers poyesters asphaltic Bituminous Composites Wood Fiberglass GFRP carbonfiber reinforced polymers CFRP fied polymers MetaIMatrix Composites MMC ceramicmatrix composites CMC CONCRETE 111 General Steps in the Study of Materials Ingredients microstructure Manufacture Property Characterization Structured Analysis CE 451 CIVIL ENGINEERING MATERIALS SHAN SOMAYAJI IV Classes of Properties EC0n0miC Properties 39Prlce Avaiabiity Supplydemand 1 Bulk Mechanical Properties Density Compressive strength Fatigue strength Modulus and damping Shear strength Thermal fatigue resistance Yield strength Bending and torsional strength Creep strength Tensile strength Fracture toughness Impact strength Hardness 2 Bulk NonMechanical Properties Therma Optical Magnetic Electrical Chemical Acoustical 3 Surface Properties Oxidation and Corrosion Friction Abrasions and Wear 4 Production Properties Ease of manufacturing Fabrication Joining Finishing 5 Aesthetlc PropertIes Appearance Texture Feel 6 Other Properties Reliability Environmentally Friendly Recyclability CE 451 CIVIL ENGINEERING MATERIALS SHAN SOMAYAJI General Framework V Forces Loads and Stresses for Deformable Materials R n Input Forces Maternal espo se Specimen a 1 Laws of Rigid Body Mechanics Newton s First Law Every body continues In its state of rest or of uniform motion in a straight line unless it is acts on by a force Newton s Second Law Force mass acceleration Newton s Third Law For every action there is an equal but opposite reaction 2 Strain 939 can be defined as the ratio between the change in length e and the length over which the change is measured I called gage length Strain is a dimensionless quantity sometimes expressed as inchesinches or metermeter 3Deformation e39 e 1 e axial deformation Axialforce Deformed body Shear force 3 lltgtl l I quot fag T i 914Vquot 4 Mpr VI a CE 451 CIVIL ENGINEERING MATERIALS SHAN SOMAYAJI 3 Stress Stress can be de ned as the measure of a force acting on a unit area of an Types of st res s imaginary section through a body SHEAR Axia1 AXIAL v 39 D i re c t Compressive H l igt 39gtlt Shea ring 7 7 Axialtension v Bending M Norma1 F1exu ra1gtllt l Axial compression Anal Stresses Shear Stresses BENDING Beam in bending l 7 Compression H n W 7 Tensmn N e U 39t r a 1 AX i S Compressive stress Tensile stress Bending Normal and Flexural stresses are produced by external forces that create a bending moment CE 451 CIVIL ENGINEERING MATERIALS SHAN SOMAYAJI a Shear Deformation Change in length measured parallel to the direction or the shear forces b Shear Strain Shear deformation per unit length measured perpendicular to the direction of the shear force 4 Poisson s Ratio Ratio of lateral strain normal to the axial direction to axial strain when loaded along the axis Most materials range from 015 04 5 Stiffness a relative measure of the deformability of a load under load measured in terms of its modulus of elasticity 6 Elasticity The property of the material that enables it to change it to change its length volume or form in direct response to an applied force and to recover its original size or form when the load is completely removed 7 Elastic Limit The maximum stress below which a material will fully recover its original form upon the removal of applied forces 8 Proportional Limit The maximum stress below which the ratio between the stress and strain is constant 9 Yielding Point Point on the stress strain curve where the stress is constant but the material is stretching without increase in load 10 Ultimate Strength The maximum stress that can be applied to a material before it fractures EHKS UNIV 535 l 39r CE 451 CIVIL ENGINEERING MATERIALS SHAN SOMAYAJI 1 Ultimate strength 7 Material A eldpmm v5 drueiiie Elastic Limit nu 391 J E Proportion 7 1 LImIt 7 r r Matenal l nonueme Modulus of quot eld strength Elasticity if Proportional liI IIit If I Ii 3 l39 I I II39 II39 b i39 I39 r 7 7 7 I H4 H39 Strain Effect 11 Modulus of Elasticity I Ratio of stress to strain below the proportional limit I There are three moduli of elasticity which corresponds to three types of stresses Modulus of elasticity in Tension Compression Shear I The modulus of elasticity in compression or tension is referred to as Young s Modulus CE 451 CIVIL ENGINEERING MATERIALS SHAN SOMAYAJI Tangent at 2 ii iquot If If I I I Imtial tangent I V I g 2 z 7 Tangent modulus 7 i f at I I gay i a l I 7 g I Initial tangent modulus I Iquot I tquotr I 7 r f 7 Secant modulus I I r j Iquot I fr 39 Stress strain diagram Strain 16 Modulus of elasticity VI Ductile amp Brittle Materials Plasticity is the property of a material that enables it to retain permanent set or deformation without fracture Construction materials are divided into two classes 1 Plastic or ductile DUCTILE Property that allows it to undergo change of form without breaking Examples wrought iron steel copper BRITTLE materials have little or no 2 Brlttle Example concrete mortar brick glass TOUGHNESS represents the ability of a material to support loads even after yielding or crack formation CE 451 CIVIL ENGINEERING MATERIALS SHAN SOMAYAJI Normally the strength and stiffness are independent StressStrain behavior of various materials Out of date Softness and hardness are the surface properties of a material 80ft Weak U33 EX Diamond is harder than glass is harder than steel Relate to the resistance of the UUA a surface against scratching wear indentation Weak a tle Wgh 39 Mater1al B Is more ductile than A Toughness of B gt Toughness A Because total area B gt total area A ll 5 I l I No load Failure Steel a l l l I 39 l K x I j I I K I Aq I IV Y 7 Cast iron Concrete Concrete Mortar cube shear plane shear plane shear cone shear cone 1 Figure 19 a Ductile and b brittle materials in compression CE 451 CIVIL ENGINEERING MATERIALS SHAN SOMAYAJI VII Selection of Materials Primary Functions Carry the prescribed load Satisfy serviceable requirements Be economical Be environmentally acceptable Be aesthetically pleasing Available materials materials A B C D l I gtCSelect a material for consideration iv No 39 Yes Does the materlal satisfy strength requ1rements l No Yes Does the matenal satisfy serv1ceab111ty requirements l I No Yes Are the aesthetic quahtles of the materlal acceptable l L Does the material satisfy cost constraints material cost plus construction cost l I No lt I I Yes lt Does the use of the material pose N0 environmental problems or hazards C Select the material 3 Figure 110 Materials selection owchart 10 CE 451 CIVIL ENGINEERING MATERIALS SHAN SOMAYAJI VIII Standards ASTM Standards Agencies 1 ANSI American National Standards Institute 2 NFPA National Forest Products Association 3 PCA Portland Cement Association 39gt ACI American Concrete Association 5 AISC American Iron and Steel Institute 6 BIA Brick Institute of America Chapter 2 The Wonderful World of Aggregates 1 Aggregate De nition A granular materia such as sand gravel crushed stone or 1ron blasted furnace slag use with a cementing media to form mortar concrete used as a base course or railroad ballast II Classi cation of Aggregates amp Types A Based on Size B Types of Aggregates 1 Fine 1 Crushed Stone 2 Course 2 Gravel 3 Sand BASED ON SIZE 111 Fine Aggregates sand Natural or manufactured particles Size range 0006 in 150 micrometers to 316 in 475mm IV Coarse Aggregates Rounded river gravel crushed stone and manufactured aggregate Size range Larger than 316 in V Gravel Natural rounded aggregate larger that 14 in To 15 in Occasionally 25 in or 3 in VI Crushed Gravel A fine aggregate made by crushing the gravel ACCORDING TO WEIGHT i Heavy Weight Natural from rocks ii Normal Weight OR iii Light Weight Artificial V Heavy Weight Aggregates Concretes for protection against nuclear radiation and as bomb shelters etc Specify Gravity 4 77 Unit Weight 2400 kgmquot3 to 6400 kgmAS TYPES Magnetite Barite Iron Shot or Scrap Iron VI Normal Weight Aggregates Crushed stone gravel and sand for normal weight concretes asphalt concretes and roadway sub base Specific Weight 26 265 Unit Weight 1520 kgmquot3 1680 kgmquot3 TYPES Normal Sands gravel crushed rock granite quartzite syenite basalt sandstone and limestone Arti cial Broken brick pulverized concrete air cooled blast furnace slag silicates and aluminates of calcium VII Light Weight Aggregates Light weight concretes light weight roof slabs or floors Unit Weight 880 kgmAS 1120 kgmquot3 TYPES Normal Pumice volcanic glass whitish grey to yellow in color grown red and black porous structure Volcanic Scoria pores larger than that in Pumice and is a red to black color Sawdust Wood Shavings Asbestos now deemed hazardous Arti cial Furnace clinker Foamed Slag Expanded clay shale slate perlite sintered shale clay pulverized fuel ash and vermiculite VIII Rocks De nition Rocks are mixures of several minerals OHlO UNIVERSITY Types of Rocks 1 Igneous 2 Sedimentary 3 Metamorphic 4 Minerals Natural occurring chemical element or compound with a de nite crystalline structure and distinctive physical properties Most Common Rock Minerals Feldspars most common group abundant in earths crust Quarts Kaolinite Muscovite and Calcite l Igneous Rocks Formed by cooling and hardening of molten magma Earth39s crust contains about 90 Important igneous rocks granites basalts pumice scoria and rhyolite Mineral composition of granite is principally FELDSPARS Potassium Al Silicates Sodium Al Silicates Calcium Al 2 Sedimentary Rocks Formed by the accumulation or deposit of transported fragments followed by consolidation Earths crust contains approx 5 of Sed amp Met Rocks and exposed rocks are approx 75 sedimentary Transportation Media water ice and Wind Common Rocks Sandstones limestone CaCOB and shales Quarts most abundant mineral Shales slits powdered quarts and silica amp clays oxides of silica and Al Iron Mg 3 Metamorphic Rocks Metamorphosis alteration of sedimentary and or igneous rocks from heat pressure or both Examples Schist gneiss Slate amp Marble SOME PROPERTIES OF COMMON ROCKS Compressive Modulus of Modulus of Type of Speci c Porosity Density strength rupture elasticity rock gravity as pet laying ksi Wat ksiiMPa ksi MPa 33 10 3 Granite 265 165 265D 15 35 103 241 1222 SE 152 6 10 413 689 Limestone D S30 1163 NW 5 35 344 241 D25 271 7 18 4 14 216 965 Marble 263 0 15 175 H510 10 30 68339439063 BIBS 23 34453 H4 216 965 Sandstone 2514 l Et i U 258m 32301 482065 52tl34s138 145 69417 Slate 274 N0 27 a Shale EDD 31 310 1340 2255 Crushed Stone Uses of Aggregates Sand amp Gravel Uses of Aggregates Properties of Aggregates 1 Most Important Properties SURFACE TEXTURE GLASSY SMOOTH GRANULAR ROUGH CRYSTALLINE PARTICIAL SHAPE DELETERIOUS SUBSTANCE quotWHATEVER MATERIALS THAT WILL PS HUSK ALLY OR CHEMICALLY REACT WITH PORTLAND CEMENT CONCRETE OR ASPHALT CONCRETE AND CREATE UNDESIRABLE RESULTS SUCH AS VOLUME CHANGE CRACKING RETARDING OF SETTING TIME REDUCTION OF STRENGTH ETCll INCLUDE ORGANIC COATING FINE DUST PASSING 200 SIEVE CLAY LUMP SHAKE COAL PARTICLES FRIABLE PARTICLES EASY TO CRUMBLE CHERT SOFT PARTICLES ETC II Moisture Condition of Aggregates 1 OVEN DRY CONDITION THIs CONDITION Is OBTAINED WHEN ALL THE MOISTURE Is DRIVEN OUT OF THE PORES BY DRYING OUT THE AGGREGATE TO A CONSTANT WEIGHT AT A TEMPERATURE OF ABOUT 1 10 C 230F 2 SATURATED SURFACE DRY THIS CONDITION IS OBTAINED WHEN ALL THE PORES ARE FILLED WITH WATER BUT THERE IS NO MOISTURE OUTSIDE 3 AIR DRY CONDITION WHEN MOISTURE IN THE PARTICLES IS LESS THAN THAT OF SATURATED SURFACE DRY CONDITION BUT MORE THAN THAT WHICH REMAINS IN THE OVENDRY CONDITION 4 WET CONDITION WHEN EXCESS MOISTURE REMAINS ON THE SURFACE OF THE PARTICLES OHIO SD E UN I was I 39r III Moisture Content MOISTURE CONTENT WEIGHT OF MOISTURE X100 OVEN DRY WEIGHT MOISTURE CONTENT ORIGINAL SAMPLE WT OVEN DRY WT ABSORPTION CAPACITy SATURATED SURFACE DRY WT OVEN DRY WT x100 OVEN DRY WEIGHT IV Bulk Density THE MASS OF A UNIT VOL OF AN AGGREGATE OR A SPECIFIC TEMP MASS IN A OVENDRY CONDITION VOLSOLID VOL OR PARTICLES VOL OF VOIDS UNITS GMMAB GMA3 LBFTA3 MOST MINERALS 95100 PCF V Apparent Speci c Gravity DENSITY OF PARTICLES BASED ON SOLID VOL APPARENT SG DENSITY OF WATER VI Bulk Speci c Gravity DENSITY OF PARTICLES BASED ON SOLID VOL PLUS PORE VOL BULK SG DENSITY OF WATER VOID CONTENT PROPERTY OF AGGREGATE VII Voids AMOUNT OF AIR SPACE IN THE AGGREGATE OR SPACE BETWEEN THE PART 79K VOIDS TOTAL VOL SOLID VOL OF PARTICLES OF GROSS VOL v OID CONTENT OF SOLID COLORI VOL OF VOIDS FILLED Up WITH CEMENT PASTE VIII Porosity MOST VARIETIES OF GRANITE AND LIMESTONE HAVE VERY LOW POROSITY 39I PORES IN A MOST SANDSTONES HAVE HIGH POROSITY3 PARTICLE POROSITY VOL OF PORES TOTAL VOL OF PARTICLES SOLIDPORES IX Modulus of Elasticity amp Strength GRANITES AND LIMESTONE IN COMPRESSION E 2x101 6 TO 7x10A7 PSI E138x101 3 T0 48XIOA3MPA STRENGTH APPROXIMATELY 13000 PSI SANDSTONE E1x10A6 TO 5x101 6 PSI NON LINEAR STRENGTH APPROXIMATELY 6000 PSI MOST ROCKS DO NOT OBEY HOOKE S LAW GENERALLY COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF AGGREGATES IS GREATER THAN THE COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF CONCRETE MADE WITH AGGREGATES X Other Properties ABRASION RESISTANCE 8c WEAR RESISTANCE IMPORTANT PROPERTY TO DETERMINE SUITABILITY FOR USE IN ROADS AND PAVEMENTS ABRASION MECHANICAL WEARING AND SCRAPING OF ROCKS SURFACES BY FRICTION IMPACT OR BOTH HARDNESS MEASURE OF THE RESISTANCE TO DEFORMATION INDENTATION OR SCRATCHING FRACTURE TOUGHNESS MEASURE OF RESISTANCE TO FRACTURE UNDER APPLIED LOADING SLOW LOADING OR IMPACT LOADING Gradation of Aggregates De nition DISTRIBUTION OF AGGREGATE SIZE Properties bI iiiti UN I39Viz s I 39r Steve size 0 o c o o D co N 1 LD 0 1 OO sf E E E w O O O O o o O 93 91 1 E I E Z Z Z Z Z Z Z 039 r m 1 F DJ CD E U 0 CU Q E an O 5 CD D eseeeeemeeemo Q m 90 N R mg C O Q Q 1 Sieve size mm Grad1ng DETERMINES THE PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTION Blending PROCESS OF COMBINING AGGREGATES OF VARIOUS SIZES TO OBTAIN A SPECIFIED GRADING 100 Dense Graded Aggregates 13 I E 5 l ONE OR MORE INTERMEDIATE SIZES ARE MISSING Dense IS I I 39 3 I T Open 5 Gap 2 a I E r 1 Open Graded Aggregates a J Onle sized quot39If39 t39 I 1 O GRAINSIZE DISTRIBUTION SUCH THAT WHEN COMPACTED THE RESULTING VOIDS BETWEEN AGGREGATE PARTICLES EXPRESSED AS A PERCENTAGE OF THE TOTAL SPACE OCCUPIED BY THE MATERIAL ARE RELATIVELY SMALL Gap Graded Aggregates GRAINSIZE DISTRIBUTION SUCH THAT WHEN COMPACTED THE RESULTING VOIDS BETWEEN AGGREGATE PARTICLES EXPRESSED AS A PERCENTAGE OF THE TOTAL SPACE OCCUPIED BY THE MATERIAL ARE RELATIVELY LARGE Sieve APPARATUS WITH SQUARE OPENINGS 8 DIAMETER OR 203mm DIAMETER Standard Coarse Aggregate Sieves No 4 38 12 341 1 12 2 IN Standard Fine Aggregate Sieves NO 00 NO 50 30 6 8 4 Fineness Modulus A MEASURE OF AVERAGE PARTICLE SIZE OF THE SAMPLE SUPPOSE IT IS 30 USING THE PREVIOUS SLIDES SIEVE SIZES THEN THE AVERAGE SIZE OF THE SAMPLE IS THE 3RD SIEVE FROM THE BOTTOM WHICH IS NO 30 Sievesize cao C 3000 CD 01me 00 quotfaquot E E E m i 3000 D O o 00 N 1 E 1 E 2222 Z Z Z Ea 2 5 0quot 1 1 N 100 9 0 80 70 60 50 40 Percent passing 30 20 1O U 3888 a a 3 L0 m D e w e f E CD N CD If I Q GOOD 1 Sieve Size mm 10 Effective Size or Ten Size D39IO Uniformity Coefficient THE PARTICLE DIAMETER AT WHICH 10 BY WEIGHT OF THE AGGREGATE IS FINER IN SIZE D o Du It Coefficient of Curvature Cc D60 THE PARTICLE DIAMETER AT WHICH 60 BY WEIGHT OF THE AGGREGATE IS FINER IN SIZE 030 D10 39 Dbo p Max Aggregate Size D30 THE PARTICLE DIAMETER AT WHICH 30 BY WEIGHT OF THE AGGREGATE IS FINER IN SIZE ENTIRE SAMPLE PASSES Normal Max Size MOST NOT ALL SAMPLE PASSES ABOUT 5 Percent passing SleveSIze CO C CJGCDD Q e mime 1 00 Sr E E E m j a 5 d Q Q Q 03 N ST E T E quot 222 Z Z Z 2 Ba 55 w a m E 88 e a E m P 0 er m e L U N 3 L0 N C3 0330 1 Sieve size mm I UNIVFIISFI39T hitJi g 235 r in J L 31 r 3911 u A 1 I quotFELIPE 39En quotmt 4E3 I uquot Jl in HE w i1 n V m V7 397 mm 94 n3sz CEFEI gjz rja W39LWSTEI Firth 1 d1 EDIT IE ELizrmzm g F DL E J 5quot LE L4 J rnjgg EELTSE J m r E a 914 I CL Hi u 1 F d 393 1 139VDLFW 7 h V E 451 u Hi 535 n 1r aw D 4 I a I mn E an a Iaminquot I39ll illI 39 quotI 39l r muquot m n N am a 1ij Wm mas CI L73 a my E U I I I q d 39 I i I39 1139 IllL39I II39II39l Ef hm am on 39I gl an DEA 1 r lr I I E v39 quotquot13 g i Piaf s k A mm mm a Yam cumM 2 nquot m 1 Lv Yield iquot 9 a 1 LMJHLSx 3 Mills 4 3 I 39 Ckmae rn CrnS o SWH ILSA 39 Aquot x oo Mpg a S r39HxI Ha ha in d MVH LAquot 61 C 39 d ltio quota a at e TTLENI ES S 3 ND mfff rcimblb 3L5pr 39p r39mn Ham 1quot SUd39ol HHVW le h WMILSamp5 quotS H tinL rm ww g quot J Ea ElmHu


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