Diversity of Life II Notes Week 13
Diversity of Life II Notes Week 13 211
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jacob Erle on Sunday April 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 211 at Syracuse University taught by Justine Weber in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see Diversity of Life II in Foreign Language at Syracuse University.
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Date Created: 04/24/16
Diversity of Life II Notes Week 13 4/19/16 Herpetology – Reptilia The Amniotic Egg shared derived character of “amniotes” only possible with internal fertilization internalized in aquatic habitats adding of shell: protects against desiccation, reduces predation, waste management and gas exchange Diverged ~340MYA from amphibians that were small and lizardlike Enlarged lungs nails/claws for burrowing loss of lateral line system thicker skin (literally) impervious to reduce water loss, able to venture away from water Ex. Anthracosaurus – Amphibianlike reptile Amniote Evolution Lobefinned fishtransitional amphibians Anthracosaurs Subclasses able to track phylogeny, and used for identifying different groups Synapsids 1 opening on side of skull ‘protomammals’ or mammallike reptiles (technically not reptiles) and modern mammals originated in Carboniferous, ~315MYA Anapsids no openings Order Chelonia or Testudines (Turtles & Tortoises, 300species) ancient lineage; huge extinct specimens (Ex. Archelon, Protostega) may be nested within Diapsida? Only living anapsids – one of earliest reptile lineages (little has changed since Triassic) No Teeth! Instead have keratinous (sometimes serotinous) beak as with birds (see Snapping Turtle) Oviparous with longterm sperm storage no parental care dig nests with hind feet on land bony shell completely integrated into body, houses internal organs lungs below carapace (surface of shell) carapace fused to vertebrae and ribs, which are joined to plastron Shellassociated Demography limbs, head and neck can be drawn into shell extraordinary armor Implications – great longevity, high survival (don’t reach sexual maturity until 10 20years old) *not only biological trait, but necessary for survival Turtle Excluder Device (TED) – has been big advantage for aiding trapped turtles Diapsids 2 openings on sides of skull, Lepidosaurs [Order Rhynocephalia tuatara & Order Squamata squamates (snakes and lizards)], “scaled lizards” Common traits single transverse cloacal slit Hemipenes – reproductive structure (invert cloaca to expose them during mating) Ecdysis – skin shedding Tuatara once widespread, but now only 23 species on small islands off New Zealand (don’t deal well with rats) lizardlike most went extinct about 70MYA ancient group make up half of entire phylogenetic clade; sister group to all Squamates series of spines on nape and back vestigial, parietal eye (functional in light detection) Chiselbeaked upper jaw overhanging lower jaw teeth fused to jaw and not replaced during life cycle Squamates – Lizards, Suborder Lacertilia, ~3000species, 25families range from 0.03m3m long egg bearing most are small (most are less than 2g) external ear openings most have 4 legs, but some limbs have been reduced or completely lost in some groups high diversity and abundance unlike snakes they have moveable eyelids Unique Adaptations Chameleons tongues like spears, changing colors Gecko foot structures – rows of sticky lamellae, very sturdy and unlike any other adhesive structures humans have developed Snakes – Suborder Ophidia, Serpentes, ~2300 species no limbs, eyelids or external ear (inner ear detects vibrations) No sternum – ribs extend entire length of vertebral column organs elongate, left lungs reduced or absent helps with slithering around all snakes are carnivorous, and most take larger prey (helpful not having a sternum) with exception of brain case, they can let their whole bodies hang loose to swallow food (eggs, wallabies, alligators) some snakes will only have to eat a few times a year trap and catch prey using venom and/or constriction Skull and jaws are exceedingly mobile heat sensitive pits Limbless Locomotion Lateral undulation Rectilinear Concertina Sidewinding Saltation Amphisbaenids (suborder Amphisbaenia), ~135 species able to ram through soil in both directions using their skulls mostly legless – burrow, eat inverts loose skin, scales in annuli tentacle on head acts as chemosensory organ to detect underground prey Archosauria Crocodilia (Aves) the ‘ruling reptiles’, originated ~250MYA Permian period Dominant terrestrial vertebrates in Mesozoic Era – The Age of DINOSAURS (245 65MYA) explosive radiation of flowing plants, insects and smaller reptiles feeding on them many archosaurs medium to largesized Ended 65 MYA (The KT Event) massive extinction event Descendants include crocodiles, birds and dinosaurs Origins of flight, legacy of archosaurs the BIRDS Archosaurs also derivative of Crocodylia, ~23species originated ~200MYA in Triassic, thrived during Mesozoic thecodont teeth (set in bony sockets), and are replaced often as once per month armored bodies using sets of abutting osteoderms bony plates under skin All build nests, either as mounds of rotting vegetation (alligators, caimans, and a few crocodiles) or in friable soils (most crocodiles) females will guard nests, and assist in development of young Crocodiles in Mythology “Sebek” – Egyptian symbol of deceit, treachery and hypocrisy 4/21/16 Dr. Shannon Farrell – BIRDS Why do we care? featured in arts, culture through observing ecology and interesting behavior of birds Native American rituals, Swan Dance, contemporary pop music (Katy Perry – Hummingbird Harpy, relates back to high heart rate) Major role in development of fundamental ecological theories Allopatric, sympatric speciation, adaptive radiation (Darwin’s finches) Competition, Niche Partitioning Theory David Lack, Robert MacArthur, Evelyn Hutchinson founding fathers of modern ecology and competition theory in particular—all studied birds Behavioral studies Konrad Lorenz, geese white crowned sparrow dialects prairie chickens – lekking species scrub jays and acorn woodpeckers kin selection and altruism Major wildlife legislation in US Lacey Act, 1900 – triggered by plumage trade, overharvesting of birds for their feathers (egrets, peacocks) for fashion mostly Class Aves Bird Origins and Evolution Reptiles are the ancestors of birds, no doubt about that. What is debated is the process for how we get from reptiles to birds Thecodont Hypothesis – birds evolved from basal archosaurs, crocs and relatives Theropod Hypothesis – bipedal, mostly carnivorous dinosaurs (Saurischia, lizard hipped, not Ornithischia, birdhipped) *Archeopteryx – had some features similar to reptiles, others similar to modern birds bipedal, crowsized heavy, rooted reptilian teeth Hallux (hind toe) skull similar to small dinosaurs, single condyle 11 pairs of ribs, no uncinate process evidence of hollow bones and feathers Temporary dominance of primitive toothed birds during Creteaceous Period Subclass Neornithes (new birds) – modern birds seen after KT Event adaptive radiation of modern species of the last 2 million years to about 10,000 species today (most diverse vertebrate group) Modern Lineages – Palaeognathae Struthioniformes – flightless birds: Ostrich, emus, kiwis *flight is the preexisting condition; flightlessness appears later in the geologic timeline Neognathae Galloanserae: Anseriformes, waterfowl and Galliformes, fowl Neoaves – everything else Common Characteristics feathered, bipedal vertebrates in modern birds feathers provide insulation and generate lift for flight forelimbs are modified into wings and hindlimbs for walking in flightless birds these wings can get really reduced lightweight skeleton (most of them) bones are very light extensive bones fusion in head, limbs and pelvis give added power to body frame endothermic (‘metabolic furnace’), flying takes a lot of energy Oviparous – egglayers 4chambered heart scales on legs mouths are modified as horny beaks, no teeth heavy teeth would weigh bird down during flight lighter, more compact beaks enable birds to concentrate center of gravity lower near the sternum (chest) excrete waste as solid, pasty uric acid no bladder, for urea is liquid and would be too heavy and disorienting for flying animals large number of species, but basic body plans of birds have little physical diversity flight places a lot of demands on what they can look like; bioenergetic demands combined with internal and external constraints Why fly? access to large geo areas over shorter time that would otherwise be accessible Arctic Tern, migrates from northernmost tip of N. America greater range of habitats than any other vertebrates; access to niches otherwise not available or costly to access Origins of flight Dinosaur forelimbs protowings, but how? Several theories Groundup/Cursorial feathered forelimbs aid in leaping/gliding to capture prey would be helpful for smaller theropods Treesdown/Arboreal – taking to trees for food and shelter, possible nesting sites and niche for avoid predators/competitors WAIR (wingassisted incline running) Chukars (quail) not the best flyers, but can use flapping flight to help get up trees, steep slopes Jesusdinosaur – protowings developed some lift/thrust to “walk on water” to evade predators better fitness see Wilson’s petrels Predominant theories currently are Groundup or Treesdown Innovations and Adaptations for Flight key needs for flight Feathers – integumentary appendages (not modified reptilian scales) hollow tubes good insulating properties very flexible adapted to be strong for size and weight, but still light enough for flight protective layer instead of skin layers that are very thin Contour feathers – main vane that branches into barbs barbules Connectivity gives feathers a Velcrolike structure Loss of teeth Bill teeth replaced by gizzard, center of the body Bill comprised of a bony framework covered by a tough layer of keratin keratin layer continuously replaced throughout the life of a bird & is just as continuously worn down by eating and manipulating hard objects Skeletal adaptations modified to be small amount of overall body size Ex. Frigatebird have 7ft wingspan, skeleton weighs 114g; skeleton weighs less than feathers Thin, hollow, trussed bones foam or honeycomb structure do need marrow to produce red blood cells so not all bones are hollow Wing homologous to forelimbs of reptiles and mammals humerus is short and stout radius and ulna, midwing (forearm) 2 small carpal (wrist bones) phalaanges and metaphalanges fused into larger carpometacarpus thumb (pollex) loss of digits sacrifices dexterity for power Digestive and Excretory System Gizzard helps grind food instead of using teeth (seen at top of digestive tract) st serves as 1 stomach, coarse surface for “filing” food down no bladder or watery urine; kidneys concentrate waste as uric acid safe for developing embryo in eggs to store away Reproductive System no species give birth to live young seasonal cycle, reproductive organs are reduced except during breeding season females only have 1 functional ovary and oviduct (reduces weight) Respiration mammal’s 2way flow is inherently inefficient; mixes fresh air and used air with each breath birds have 1way flow with air sacs found throughout the body air passes through trachea, some air deposited into lungs while a lot gets placed in posterior air sacs exhaling air brings air from air sacs into lungs to get “2 breath” maximizes amount of time lungs are in contact with fresh oxygen Circulatory System Endothermic high resting body temperature large 4chambered heart (50100% larger than mammals) with large stroke volume high BMR (Human vs. Crow vs. Hummingbird) Rete Mirabile (miracle network) – network of veins and arteries at base of leg (tibiotarsal region) Countercurrent heat exchange – heat diffuses from warm arterial blood to venous blood on its way back to core of the body shunting mechanisms can limit blood to lowest extremities little soft tissue on feet (have cartilage and scales instead) – so they won’t become frozen Muscular System (downstroke and upstroke) pectoralis muscle keeled sternum – muscle attachment site supracoracoideus muscle loops through and acts as pulley system by attaching to humerus large flight muscles found near chest, not near shoulders (drag) Diversity of Wings wing configurations vary depending on life and flight styles Aspect Ratio – ratio of length to width of wing varies from 1.5 (quick, rapid bursts for fast takeoff – Turkeys, quails) to 18 (large soaring birds – Albatross) Flightless birds (kiwis) has evolved in at least 13 orders of birds flight is costly to develop and maintain; natural selection will avoid this if costs outweigh benefits Penguins – use wings to fly underwater body is more elongated and cylindrical, feet used for paddling and are found near bottom of body Birds that run a lot have elongated legs but reduced toes Ostriches have only 2 toes but can run to 70 km/hr. The pelvis is also somewhat narrowed to prevent waddling Climbing – parrots use bills, young hoatzins have some claws on wings (seen on pollex) Diversity of Bills morphology varies with food source; some are very general, some specialize heavily skimmer birds have longer lower bill than upper, skim along water toucan bills (thermoregulation?)
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