Week 15 Notes ANTH 102
Week 15 Notes ANTH 102 ANTH 102
Popular in Intro to Archaeology
verified elite notetaker
Popular in anthropology, evolution, sphr
This 22 page Class Notes was uploaded by vscobee2 on Sunday April 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH 102 at University of Illinois at Chicago taught by Rory Dennison in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 38 views. For similar materials see Intro to Archaeology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Illinois at Chicago.
Reviews for Week 15 Notes ANTH 102
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
Date Created: 04/24/16
Week 16 Notes ANTH 102 st Notes are on every other page, excluding the 1 Inca Empire Also called “Tawantinsuyu”: land of the 4 quarters (4 corners of the world) 1450 – 1532AD o Fairly short, but accomplished a lot Largest empire in the Americas – stretched from Peru to Colombia Built upon foundations of previous civilizations: o Terrace agriculture o Moche labor tax o Tiwanaku administration, ideology o Chimú inheritance, royal lineage o Road and trade networks Capital: Cuzco o It’s founding based on legend vs. archaeology st o Manco Capac: the 1 ruler o Created in the 1400s? o Claimed Cuzco created from nothing – not really true; it was previously a small village o Occupied since 1000AD o No Incan writing, other cultures wrote about them o High elevation Rise of Inca: o Pachacuti: son of ruler but not the heir Became the 9 Inca ruler Had the vision to rise and conquer – responsible for expansion Conquered neighbors despite the odds against them – gained respect and legitimacy Legend that the surrounding peoples were savage – not true Name means “he who remakes the world” o Archaeology shows that there was fragmentation then unification after Tiwanaku’s collapse Empire: o Many groups/cultures (covered a huge area of land) o 12 million people o Maintain via loyalty and administration Put elites at edges of empire to maintain order/rule Elite given additional land along borders o Built through warfare/conquest and diplomacy (force) Had a large standing army Used only intimidation if possible Career soldiers – their only job was to be soldiers Beneficial to use intimidation over actual warfare Fortresses o Road system: Well-built/maintained Advanced (paved) road systems through the Andes (rough terrain) Way stations (tampus) served as fortresses for troops and rest stops Troops could move faster Official messengers ran along them (like relay races) o Quipu: not written text, but kept records by tying knots into strings Recorded numerical data Debate over how read/displayed There may have been different systems for different professions o Macho Pichu: Inca royal estate; fairly isolated Empire Maintenance: Loyalty o Political control o Movement of people: Colonies of transplanted populations Disobedient ethnic groups broken up and moved to stable regions Obedient groups moved to new land – maintain old land and ties PAGE LEFT BLANK o Ideology (religion): Build shrine to Incan deity (sun god) in conquered lands Took local deities to Cuzco (hostage) to ensure obedience Empire Maintenance: Administration o Road network o Taxes o Occupational specialists o Surpluses – used to make things Redistributed at state festivals/holidays Inheritance o Elites had split inheritance: You take all your stuff into your afterlife Child only inherits position Must build their own wealth o Used by monarchy o Panaqa: Royal kin group represented their dead ancestors Ancestor worship Deceased kings mummified Dead retained wealth, authority Panaqa maintained estate Mummies not “dead” – brought out for special occasions Religion: o Inti: sun god; ancestor of royal lineage o Insert Inca pantheon (gods) into local ideology Keep local gods but put Incan above Priests, temples, iconography o Huaca capture – deities held hostage in Cuzco Ended by Francisco Pizarro State Comparison: Andes vs. Mesoamerica o 1. No core region in Andes (e.g. Basin of Mexico) o 2. Power shifts between coast and rugged uplands PAGE LEFT BLANK o 3. Power shifts from North to South parts of Andes o 4. Andean centers occupied for shorter time o 5. Animal domestication more important – land transport less costly o 6. Built extensive road systems o 7. No writing system – quipu o 8. Amazing preservation in coastal and high altitude regions – textiles, human and plant remains China Early Chinese Chronology o Neolithic o Xia Dynasty (2205-1766BC) o Shang Dynasty o Zhou Dynasty (1046-256BC) Western Zhou (1045-771BC) Eastern Zhou (770-221BC) Spring and Autumn Period (770-481BC) Warring States Period (481-221BC) o Qin Dynasty (221-206BC) o Han Dynasty (206BC-220AD) Modern China: o Geography: Environmentally diverse – North and South differ in rainfall, humidity, and temperature Temperate North vs. tropical South Major rivers = Yangtze and Huang He (Yellow) Coastline densely populated – other groups more present west of coast Mountains, deserts, forests, rainforests, plains o Archaeology and Nationalism: Turfan, Xinjiang (far western China): found noodles, cakes, and porridge Food shows mixture of different cultures Very arid = great preservation PAGE LEFT BLANK China: long history; still expanding? Neolithic China: o Yangtze and Huang He (Yellow) River valleys o Crops: rice by 10,000BC and millet by 8,000BC o Animals: pigs by 8,300BC; chickens by 6,000BC; dogs by 5,000BC; silkworms by 3000BC o Peligang (Cishan) Culture: 6500-5000BC Farming, foraging Millet, cabbage Pig, dog, chicken Jiahu Site (7000-5500BC): Early pottery Writing Symbols anticipate early Han Chinese script 800 people at end of habitation o Yangshao Culture: Later Neolithic (5000-3000BC) Large, agricultural villages Banpo Site: Moat, pottery, burials Fairly complex settlement – a village Some early symbols o Longshan Culture (3000-2000BC): Changes in settlement: Larger, more permanent (cities) Defensive walls Large cemeteries; beginning social stratification Elite goods – black eggshell pottery Copper/bronze metallurgy Jade Cóng: cylinder/disk (use?) PAGE LEFT BLANK Scapulamancy: magic divination; carved symbols into bovine scapula or turtle shells and burned them Taosi Site 2300-1900BC): Rammed earth wall – packed earth 7-10m thick Cemetery: o Most graves contained little to no grave goods o Some were quite rich (jade rings, axes, wooden drums) o 3 status tiers o Increased violence – people killed by weapons o San Dai: 3 Dynasties Xia – thought to be mythical for a long time, but archaeological evidence of some centralization Shang (1766-1122BC) Zhou (1122-300BC) o Shi Ji: written record “Records of the Grand Historian” Written by Sima Qian (145-86BC) 1 major historical record of China Documented Xia and Shang dynasties Used as a model – dynasties stressed the importance of chronology Xia Dynasty: o Mythical? o Proof of centralization, but nothing yet linked to the word “Xia” o Believed to rule Yellow River Basin o Erlitou Site (2000-1500BC): Later Longshan Period 2 palaces Grid system of roads Craft specialization: workshops, bronze goods Elite tombs: painted coffins, bronze weapons PAGE LEFT BLANK Shang Dynasty: o Est. 1675BC o Oracle bones contain writings about Shang o Symbols of status in elite burials (huge tombs) o Eventually became corrupt and overthrown o Zhengzhou (est. 1500BC): Early capital Rich burials o Anyang: Last capital Millet agriculture Large Crafts Elite burials Human sacrifices Feasting is more important Related to ancestor worship Yinxu: Palace complex Many temples Shangdi (Di) was the major deity Ancestor worship Religion highly bureaucratized Chariot Pits: o Important because chariots weren’t invented in China – came from far West o Horses and chariots buried near elite tombs o Others buried in cemeteries Tomb of Lady Fu Hao (1250BC): o Queen and general o One of Yinxu’s richest tombs o Never looted (rare) PAGE LEFT BLANK Zhou Dynasty (1046-256BC): o Beginning of Imperial China o Consolidation of power o 2 Periods: Western Zhou and Eastern Zhou o Height of bronze o Not as big as later Chinese states o Similar to Feudal Europe, but no 1 religious practice/structure or strong clergy o Philosophy: Taoism: Philosophy of living in harmony with Tao Tao = “the path/way” Based on the Tao Te Ching (text) Emphasizes harmony with natural world Foundations in very ancient folk religions grounded in nature Based on teachings of a man who may or may not have existed (Lao Tzu) Compassion, Moderation, Humility Action through nonaction – leadership through example, being moral and just Confucianism: Doctrine of ethics Humans are teachable and improvable – optimistic views Virtues: altruism, righteousness, loyalty, filial piety (loyalty to family) Society should reflect family structure/values Based on Confucius’ teachings Dynasties either highly respected it or hated/banned it Elites didn’t like that loyalty was mainly given to family and not to the ruler Legalism: Political doctrine Humans are inherently evil Need laws to prevent chaos PAGE LEFT BLANK Very bureaucratic 3 Laws: o 1. Fa (law/principle): rule of law; laws should be written clearly and made public; actions have clear consequences o 2. Shu (method/tactic): ruler’s motivations must be secret; no one can try to gain favor of ruler o 3. Shi (legitimacy): the position of ruler holds the power, not the individual ruler o Defeat of Shang recorded in writings in the Li Gui bronze vessel Commemorative vessel of a nobleman’s part in the war Tells a story Ancestor worship o Innovations in military technology: Chariots on battlefield How troops standardized, organized, equipped More bronze weapon use o Western Zhou (1045-771BC) Capital: Zongzhou Innovative warfare: new types of armor; cast bronze swords Flourishing of literature and music Bronze prized by the elite Mass production techniques = better quality Bronze: Large foundries Mass production/standardization Sign of status Decentralized system of rule (Fengjian): Shang officials retained some power Land divided up among ruler’s family (elites) o Comparison to Feudalism: Development of elaborate nobility system – ranked hierarchy PAGE LEFT BLANK Nobles owned all land, allowed people to work on it However, no powerful clergy o Eastern Zhou External pressures and war led to Zhou court moving the capital to Chengzhou in 771BC – beginning of Eastern Zhou period Mandate of Heaven: King has divine right to rule Based on appropriate conduct of just rule Heaven will bless a just ruler What is “just” is based on Confucianism, not based on ancestry Shift from Shang Dynasty focus on ancestor worship Overthrowing based on ruling justly and the Mandate happens for the rest of Dynastic China Spring and Autumn Period (770-481BC): Success then decline Warring States Period (481-221BC) Multiple districts: o Imperial government broken into 5 seats of power o Conflict arose as regional leaders gained more power o Near-perpetual war o Political decentralization led to imperial breakdown Several states break away, become autonomous Last Zhou ruler killed by Qin Shihuang in 256BC – important turning point Qin Dynasty (221-206BC): o Very short o Expand rule o Unification of China’s “7 warring states” o Emperor: Qin Shihuang – best known Chinese emperor o Great Wall construction – connected pre-existing walls; becomes larger later as every dynasty adds to it o Many legal reforms: PAGE LEFT BLANK Legalism Standardization of roads, canals, coins, etc. o Return to Imperial China o Totalitarian, legalistic (dictatorship?) o Extremely powerful military – crossbows important o Qin Shihuang: 1 emperor of Unified China Destroyed Feudal structure: Stripped nobility of their power so there’d be less criticism of court – no traces of old/bad dynasty Implemented legalism philosophy Codification of law Burned books on Confucianism Standardized weights and measures, currency, chariot wheels and axles Didn’t want people to be literate – the less they know the less they can criticize/rebel Built roads and canals o Tomb of Qin Shihuang: Completed 209-210BC Massive Terracotta warriors – only 3 pits excavated Conspicuous Consumption (showing off): Material wealth equated with social status, political power He could force people to make things for his tomb Han Dynasty (206BC-220AD): o Golden Age of Dynastic China: Majority of Chinese self-identify as Han Chinese script referred to as Han characters o Bureaucratic state: Large administrative apparatus PAGE LEFT BLANK Government headed by Chancellor, Imperial Counselor, and Commander of Military Highly compartmentalized o Agricultural production expanded: Lands, housing provided to farmers settled in borderlands Tax remissions and medical facilities for settlers Expansion of irrigation systems Water power harnessed for grain milling Manual of field techniques compiled